vol.6. N 2. 2021

INFLUENCE OF MILK PROTEIN GENOTYPES ON MILK YIELD FOR THE CONTROL DAY IN BROWN CATTLE

Teodora Angelova, Jivko Krastanov, Daniela Yordanova

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of milk protein genotypes on milk yield for a control day in Brown cattle.The analysis included 155 animals kept in 4 herds in different regions of the country, regardless of their parity and lactation days. The analyzes were based on the hypothesis that the variation in milk yield for the control day was caused by genetic and environmental factors.

The factors of parity and herd – year – season, as well as the genetic factors CSN3 and LGB, have a highly reliable influence on the average daily milk yield for a control day. The animals with the BH genotype of CSN3 have the highest average daily milk yield – 24.30 kg, followed by those with AB – 18.87 kg. Heterozygous animals with different genotypes of milk proteins are characterized by close values f daily milk yield for the control day.

Key words: milk yield, factors, genotype, Brown cattle.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 38

DOI

Teodora Angelova, Jivko Krastanov, Daniela Yordanova, 2021, INFLUENCE OF MILK PROTEIN GENOTYPES ON MILK YIELD FOR THE CONTROL DAY IN BROWN CATTLE, Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 3-8, ISSN 2534-9333

TRACE METALS IN A HOST – PARASITE SYSTEM (RATTUS SPP. – HYMENOLEPIS SPP.) IN THE AREA OF A COAL MINE COMPLEX MARITZA IZTOK IN BULGARIA

Ivelin Vladov, Margarita Gabrashanska, Veselin Nanev, Elvira Arnaudova, Antonina Kovacheva, Diana Rabadjieva

ABSTRACT

Trace metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni) accumulation and their dynamics in the system soil-rodents-cestodes from natural site located around complex Maritza Iztok were tracked. Accumulation factors (ratio of metals contents in rats to these in soil) and as well bioaccumulation factors in the host – parasite system (ratio of content of metals in cestodes to this in the rats) were calculated. Metal conten was determined in the soil, the liver of rats (infected and non-infected) and in the tapeworms. The accu-mulation factor was the highest for Zn followed of Cu and Pb. Cestodes Hymenolepis spp. have higher bioaccumulation capacity for toxic metals, than their infected host, especially for Ni. Data demonstrated an increase in pollution due to a coal industry in a region of Maritsa Iztok coal complex.

Key words: rats, helminth, contamination, trace metals.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 914

DOI

Ivelin Vladov, Margarita Gabrashanska, Veselin Nanev, Elvira Arnaudova, Antonina Kovacheva, Diana Rabadjieva, 2021, TRACE METALS IN A HOST – PARASITE SYSTEM (RATTUS SPP. – HYMENOLEPIS SPP.) IN THE AREA OF A COAL MINE COMPLEX MARITZA IZTOK IN BULGARIA, Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 9–14, ISSN 2534-9333

AMPLITUDE AND FREQUENCY MODULATION – A CHARACTERISTIC OF CANINE SOUNDGRAMS

Violeta Alexandrova, Pavlina Spiridonova

ABSTRACT

The present research aims to discover the amplitude-frequency characteristic of 102 recorded and prepared soundgrams of 6 dogs associated with different and concrete behavioral reactions.

Key words: soundgram, computer analysis, amplitude and frequency modulation.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 1520

            DOI

Violeta Alexandrova & Pavlina Spiridonova, 2021, AMPLITUDE AND FREQUENCY MODULATION – A CHARACTERISTIC OF CANINE SOUNDGRAMS, Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 15–20, ISSN 2534-9333

STUDIES ON THE CAUSES OF BACTERIAL MASTITIES IN TWO DAIRY BOVINE FARMS IN NORTHEASTERN BULGARIA AND THEIR SENSITIVITY TO ANTIMICROBIAL PRODUCTS

Mariyana Nikolova, Valentina Urumova, Mihni Liuzkanov, Sasho Sabev

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis in two dairy farms with 500 and 114 cows each was studied. The causative agents have been identified and their antimicrobial susceptibility has been determined.

In farm A, 44 cows (8.8%) with mastitis were observed – 3 with clinical and 41 with subclinical forms. Pathogenic microflora was isolated from 35 cows (79.5%). Were identified 64 strains: 30 (46.9%) Streptococcus spp. and 34 (53.1%) Staphylococcus spp. All staphylococci and streptococci showed sensitivity to Amoxicillin/Clav. acid. All staphylococci also showed sensitivity to Cephalothin, Gentami-cin and Rifampicin.

In farm B, 26 cows (22.8%) with mastitis were diagnosed – 10 with clinical and 16 with subclinical forms. Pathogenic microflora was isolated from 19 cows (73.1%). Were identified 24 strains: 8 (33.3%) Streptococcus spp. and 16 (66.7%) Staphylococcus spp. All streptococci showed sensitivity to Amoxicil-lin, Amoxicillin/Clav. acid, Cephalothin, Erythromycin, Gentamicin, Tetracycline, Rifampicin and En-rofloxacin. Susceptibility to Amoxicillin/Clav. acid, Cefoxitin, Cephalothin, Lincomycin, Gentamicin, Tetracycline, Rifampicin and Enrofloxacin was found in all staphylococci.

Key words: cows, mastitis, causative agents, antibiotics, resistance.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 2127

            DOI

Mariyana Nikolova, Valentina Urumova, Mihni Liuzkanov, Sasho Sabev, 2021, STUDIES ON THE CAUSES OF BACTERIAL MASTITIES IN TWO DAIRY BOVINE FARMS IN NORTHEASTERN BULGARIA AND THEIR SENSITIVITY TO ANTIMICROBIAL PRODUCTS, Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 21–27, ISSN 2534-9333

EFFECT OF THE BREED ON THE ACTIVITY OF THE ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES – SOD AND CAT IN RAM SPERM, BEFORE AND AFTER CRYOPRESERVATION

Madlena Andreeva, Albena Alexandrova, Elina Tsvetanova, Nikola Metodiev, Rossen Stefanov

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the variations in the activities of antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT in sperm from different breeds of rams and their changes after cryopreservation. For this pur-pose, the ejaculates of a total of 24 rams of Ile-de-France, Synthetic Population Bulgarian Milk (SPBM), Lacaune and Sofia (Elin-Pelin) during their breeding season. Enzyme activities were determined spectro-photometrically. Statistically significant differences in SOD activity were found between breeds before freezing (from P≤0.001 to P≤0.05), which persisted even after thawing (P≤0.001), whereas in CAT activi-ty significant differences between breeds were detected only after cryopreservation (from P≤0.001 to P≤0.01). In conclusion, animals of the Ile de France breed had higher antioxidant enzyme protection of sperm, which probably makes it more resistant to oxidative stress and determines better reproductive abilities.

Key words: sperm, ram, SOD, CAT, cryopreservation.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 2833

            DOI

Madlena Andreeva, Albena Alexandrova, Elina Tsvetanova, Nikola Metodiev, Rossen Stefanov, 2021, EFFECT OF THE BREED ON THE ACTIVITY OF THE ANTIOXIDANT ENZYMES – SOD AND CAT IN RAM SPERM, BEFORE AND AFTER CRYOPRESERVATION, Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 28–33, ISSN 2534-9333

SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT ON DETERMINATION OF THE MOST APPROPRIATE PERIOD FOR PERFORMANCE OF TOTAL VACCINATION OF RUMINANTS AGAINST BLUETONGUE DISEASE ON THE TERRITORY OF THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA IN 2021

Iliyan Kostov, Georgi Georgiev, Madlen Vasileva

ABSTRACT

Bluetongue (BT) is an acute, viral, vector-borne, non-contagious disease of ruminants caused by the Bluetongue virus (BTV). It is transmitted by insects of the genus Culicoides. It is characterized by some strong seasonal dynamics in the countries of temperate latitudes mid-latitude climates, associated with the period of active flight of vectors. With this study we set a goal to make a scientific assessment of the appropriate period for general vaccination against bluetongue in ruminants in the territory of the Re-public of Bulgaria in 2021. Taking into account the life cycle of the vectors, the temperatures at which they begin to become active and the time to build active immunity in cattle and sheep, we recommend that vaccination in 2021 may begin in the first half of February 2021 at the earliest. It is more likely for Southern Bulgaria to start in the first half of March, and for Northern Bulgaria – in the second half of March 2021.

Key words: blue tongue, vectors, vaccination, suitable climatic conditions.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 3440

DOI

Iliyan Kostov, Georgi Georgiev, Madlen Vasileva, 2021, SCIENTIFIC ASSESSMENT ON DETERMINATION OF THE MOST APPROPRIATE PERIOD FOR PERFORMANCE OF TOTAL VACCINATION OF RUMINANTS AGAINST BLUETONGUE DISEASE ON THE TERRITORY OF THE REPUBLIC OF BULGARIA IN 2021. Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 34–40, ISSN 2534-9333

COMPARATIVE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION OF DOGS WITH MYXOMATOUS MITRAL VALVE DISEASE DEPENDING ON THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF PULMONARY HYPERTENSION

Atanas Pankov

ABSTRACT

We found a lack of significant differences in the echocardiographic sizes LA/Ao, LVID-d/Aow and LVID-s/Aow in the examined dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) after their division depending on the presence or absence of pulmonary hypertension. For the same echocardiographic sizes, we found a high degree of correlation with Mitral Valve E (m/sec). This shows that the echocardiographic M-mode sizes and Doppler measured speed Mitral Valve E rate, which depend on the left atrial pressure in dogs with MMVD prone to development of pulmonary hypertension, may be similar to the same pa-rameters in dogs with MMVD without a tendency to develop pulmonary hypertension.

Key words: dogs, echocardiographic, correlation, pulmonary, hypertension.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 4144

DOI

Atanas Pankov, 2021, COMPARATIVE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC EXAMINATION OF DOGS WITH MYXOMATOUS MITRAL VALVE DISEASE DEPENDING ON THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF PULMONARY HYPERTENSION, Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 41–44, ISSN 2534-9333

HEAVY METALS ACCUMULATION IN BLACK SEA ECOSYSTEMS: FISH SPECIES

Iliyan Manev, Hristina Neshovska, Veselin Kirov

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the current review survey was to analyze data on the accumulation of various heavy metals in the Black Sea. Subject of study were Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe etc. and their content in selected commercially significant Black Sea fish species. Available data from the different Black Sea areas were presented. The extent to which established concentrations could affect human health was discussed. Health risk assessment parameters were summarized.

Key words: heavy metals, Black sea, fish, health risk.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 4555

DOI

Iliyan Manev, Hristina Neshovska, Veselin Kirov, 2021, HEAVY METALS ACCUMULATION IN BLACK SEA ECOSYSTEMS: FISH SPECIES. Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 45–55, ISSN 2534-9333

CONTROL OF VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES IN A DOG SHELTER. EXPERIENCE FROM BULGARIA

Victoria Marincheva

ABSTRACT

Vector-bornediseases present a constant concern in both veterinary and human medicine especial-ly in the context of climate change. Prophylaxis is the one most important prerequisite for effective man-agement and the role of animal care units should be recognized. The paper describes clinical experience and protocols from a dog shelter in Sofia, Bulgaria. It deals with some commonly identified pathogens namely Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens, Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Borrelia burgdorferi, Leishmania infantum that can be accessed by rapid in-clinic test kits. Treat-ment and prevention strategies are further discussed.

Key words: dog, shelter, vector-borne, control.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 56–63

DOI

Victoria Marincheva, 2021, CONTROL OF VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES IN A DOG SHELTER. EXPERIENCE FROM BULGARIA. Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 56–63, ISSN 2534-9333

LACTATION CURVE OF THE SHEEP FROM BULGARIAN DAIRY SYNTHETIC POPULATION

Nevyana Stancheva, Teodora Angelova, Daniela Yordanova, Jivko Krastanov

ABSTRACT

The aim of the study was to analyze the lactation curve of ewes from Bulgarian Dairy Synthetic Popu-lation depending on test-day milk yield and parity. The analyzed data included 7,920 test – day records of 628 ewes from the herd of Agricultural Institute – Shumen, during the period 2009-2019. A mixed linear model was used and the analytical hypothesis included the factors: year and month of lactation, parity, type of lambing, test day (related to the lactation curve), suckling period, permanent effect of environmental changes, genetic value of the animal, random residual effects. The study established a typical, relatively flat lactation curve varying in depend and on test day and parity. Test-day milk yield is above or equal to the overall mean in the primiparous ewes, close or slightly lower at 2nd to 5th lactation and substantially lower from at 6th and 7th lactation.

Key words: sheep, Bulgarian Dairy Synthetic Population, milk productivity, lactation curve, Test-day model Р.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 6471

DOI

Nevyana Stancheva, Teodora Angelova, Daniela Yordanova, Jivko Krastanov, 2021, LACTATION CURVE OF THE SHEEP FROM BULGARIAN DAIRY SYNTHETIC POPULATION. Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 64–71, ISSN 2534-9333

ASSOCIATION OF BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN (LGB) GENOTYPES WITH QUALITY COMPOSITION OF MILK AND COAGULATION PROPERTIES IN BULGARIAN BLACK-AND-WHITE CATTLE

Daniela Yordanova, Teodora Angelova, Jivko Krastanov

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to establish the relationship of LGB genotypes with the traits characterizing the qualitative composition of milk and its coagulation ability in cows of the BBW cattle. Milk proteins’ polymorphism was evaluation in 132 tissue samples from cows reared at 4 farms by PCR–RFLP analysis. During the study, the following parameters were studied: daily milk yield (kg), fat and protein contents (%), rennet coagulation time, curd firmness and curd firming time. The presence of 2 alleles of LGB – A, B, which determine three genotypes – AA, AB, BB. Homozygous animals carrying the BB genotype of LGB are characterized by the highest average daily milk yield – 31.00 kgIt was found that animals with genotype AA produce milk with the highest fat content – 3.90%, the fastest rennet coagulation time – 19.82 min and the hardest coagulum – 25.99 mm.

Key words: LGB, genotypes, Bulgarian Black–and–White cattle, coagulation, milk.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 7277

DOI

Daniela Yordanova, Teodora Angelova, Jivko Krastanov, 2021, ASSOCIATION OF BETA-LACTOGLOBULIN (LGB) GENOTYPES WITH QUALITY COMPOSITION OF MILK AND COAGULATION PROPERTIES IN BULGARIAN BLACK-AND-WHITE CATTLE. Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 72–77, ISSN 2534-9333

ANALYSIS OF BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL PROFILES OF DAIRY COWS AND THEIR CALVES FROM BULGARIAN BROWN CATTLE BREED

Atanaska Teneva, Georgi Stoimenov, Kalin Hristov, Tsvetoslav Koynarski, Alexandar Stoimenov

ABSTRACT

Present study was conducted to analyze the blood biochemical parameters of a total 271 Bulgarian Brown Cattle Breed and their calves. We evaluated the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotrans-ferase (ALAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), albumin (Alb), total protein (TP), creatin-phosphokinase (CPK), total lipid (TL), calcium (Ca), ceruloplasmin (CP) in their serum. The cows was 2–12 years old, mean body weight 600 kg and the calves 1–9 months old. The cows were held in an intensive farm breeding premises. Their meal consisted of ordinary alfalfa, silage, hay and concentrates with energy and protein supplements. The Student t-test showed a significant dif-ference (P < 0.05) in mean of the ASAT, ALAT, ALP, ACP, Alb, TP, TL, Ca, Cp between cows and calves of the breed. Mean values of the Alb, TP, CPK, Cp and Ca was higher in cow group than in calves group (P < 0.05), while ASAT, ALAT, ALP, ACP, TL was lower in cow in comparison to the calves group (P < 0.05).

Key words: blood, biochemical parameters, АSАТ, АLАТ, ALP, Cp, calves.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 7882

DOI

Atanaska Teneva, Georgi Stoimenov, Kalin Hristov, Tsvetoslav Koynarski, Alexandar Stoimenov, 2021, ANALYSIS OF BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL PROFILES OF DAIRY COWS AND THEIR CALVES FROM BULGARIAN BROWN CATTLE BREED. Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 78–82, ISSN 2534-9333

FUSARIOTOXINS CONTAMINATION IN CEREALS FOR FEED PRODUCTION IN THE PERIOD 2018–2019

Nadezhda Sertova, Maya Ignatova

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of zearalenone and deoxinivalenol in feed materials and its concentrations were presented in this survey for 2018–2019 crops harvest. A total number of 177 representative samples of wheat (n=70), barley (n=65) and maize (n=42) collected from differerent regions of Bulgaria were ana-lyzed by Enzyme–Linked Immunosorbent Assay method. The highest zearalenone concentration of 168 µg/kg was detected in maize samples followed by barley of 156.78 µg/kg and 143 µg/kg in wheat sam-ples for 2019 crop. The results obtained in this survey revealed that mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp. are frequent contaminants of feed grains in Bulgaria. The highest concentration of deoxinivalenol detected was 2.86 mg/kg in maize, 2.29 mg/kg in barley, and 0.782 mg/kg in wheat samples, 2019 crop. The reported pollution levels are lower than those referenced in the European regulation. Despite the low levels, the results have shown the need for more comprehensive research on these two mycotoxins in feed materials.

Key words: mycotoxins, wheat, barley, maize, ELISA.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 8489

DOI

Nadezhda Sertova & Maya Ignatova, 2021, FUSARIOTOXINS CONTAMINATION IN CEREALS FOR FEED PRODUCTION IN THE PERIOD 2018–2019. Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 84–89, ISSN 2534-9333

RECURRENT LАRINGEAL NEUROPATHY IN HORSES – CLINICAL FEATURES AND DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH

Sasho Sabev, Mariyana Nikolova

ABSTRACT

The present study included 18 horses with respiratory problems expressed in breathless and stridors (wheezing, snoring). Endoscopy of the upper respiratory tract confirmed a left sided laryngeal neuropa-thy as follow: twelve horses II Grade, four horses III Grade, two horses complete paralysis (IV Grade). Ten horses were diagnosed with the following concomitant abnormalities: dorsal displacement of the soft palate (three horses), entrapment of the epiglottis (two horses), rostral dislocation of the palatopharyngeal arch (two horses), and the presence of blood in the trachea (three horses). The clinical parameters: inter-nal body temperature, heart and respiratory rate, color of visible mucous membranes, capillary time were within normal limits. The blood parameters (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, leukocytes, DBC, erythrocyte indices, total protein, albumin, total and direct bilirubin, creatinine, urea, GGT, Alka-line Phosphatase) showed no deviations from physiological range.

Key words: horse, laryngeal hemiplegia, endoscopy.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 9094

DOI

Sasho Sabev & Mariyana Nikolova, 2021, RECURRENT LАRINGEAL NEUROPATHY IN HORSES – CLINICAL FEATURES AND DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH. Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 90–94. ISSN 2534-9333

INFLUENCE OF THE IMMUNOMODULATOR „AVIGEN“ ON THE NATURAL RESISTANCE OF ROSS HYBRID BROILER

Rumen Karakolev, Tsvetoslav Koynarski, Reneta Petrova, Preslava Petrova-Tsenin

ABSTRACT

             Some basic indicators of nonspecific immunity in ROSS 308 hybrid broilers receiving a polybacte-rial immunomodulator were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and spectrophotometric methods. The experiments were performed in flocks of broiler breeders and broilers under production conditions. In the control herds- under the same breeding conditions and in compliance with the prophy-lactic programs in the farms, including the accepted antibiotic therapy. The birds from the experimental flocks were raised without the use of antibiotics. As a result of the performed studies, we found higher concentrations of lysozyme, IFN γ, IL-2; IL-6 in experimental herds receiving the immunomodulator compared to controls. For example, in the experimental broiler herd, we found twice as high levels of serum lysozyme relative to controls: 6.17 ± 0.49 mg / L and 2.99 ± 0.27 mg / L, respectively. The activity of complement (CH50) in the blood serum of broilers treated with AVIGEN – 549.00 ± 19.69, also significantly exceeded the values in the control herd – 377.40 ± 9.58. We received similar results from broiler breeders. Serum IgY concentrations showed a significant difference in adolescent broiler breeders but not in broilers.

            We tracked the changes in bursa Fabricii by histological methods. Under the influence of the immunomodulator AVIGEN in the bursa of experimental birds, we observed delayed involution and good functional activity, while in the controls, involution processes were advanced and accompanied by follicle death and connective tissue growth. The morphological and functional activity of bursa Fabricii contributes to the increased natural resistance in the birds treated with the immunomodulator, which enabled their breeding without the use of antibiotics in production conditions.

Key words: horse, laryngeal hemiplegia, endoscopy.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 95103

DOI

Rumen Karakolev, Tsvetoslav Koynarski, Reneta Petrova, Preslava Petrova-Tsenin, 2021, INFLUENCE OF THE IMMUNOMODULATOR „AVIGEN“ ON THE NATURAL RESISTANCE OF ROSS HYBRID BROILER. Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 95–103, ISSN 2534-9333

BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE OF FREE-LIVING EUROPEAN BROWN HARE (LEPUS EUROPAEUS, PALLAS) FROM BULGARIA

Iliyan Manev

ABSTRACT

Estimation of blood biochemical profiles in free-living hares may serve to determine their health status and metabolic state as an element of conservation strategies. The objective of the current study was to determine blood biochemistry values for a population of free-living European brown hares. Blood samples from 34 adult hares shot during regular hunting season in South-Eastern Bulgaria, Europe (Ka-meno, Burgas region) were collected. The activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate ami-notransferase (ASAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), glucose (GLUC), cholesterol (CHOL), triglycerides (TG), creatinin (CREAT), Urea (BUN), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and magnesium (Mg) in serum were measured. All evaluated serum biochemistry values were within the physiological range with relatively low differences compared to references. Based on this we can con-clude that there was an optimal health and nutritional status of the tested hare population.

Key words: Biochemical parameters, brown hare, Lepus europaeus.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 104108

DOI

Iliyan Manev, 2021, BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL PROFILE OF FREE-LIVING EUROPEAN BROWN HARE (LEPUS EUROPAEUS, PALLAS) FROM BULGARIA. Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 104–108, ISSN 2534-9333

KEEPING WILD ANIMALS IN CAPTIVITY – TRADITIONAL ENTERTAINMENT OR MODERN CONSERVATION APPROACH?

Mariam Khan, Gergana Balieva

ABSTRACT

Growing global populations are increasingly dependent on natural resources, such as food, water and land to supply their demands. At the same time, urban environment has made its population curious of their surrounding nature, including wildlife. Zoos appear to be an appropriate tool to introduce wild animals to people in a safe and interesting way, providing new experiences and even education to several generations. With the development of animal ethics and nature protection, zoos started to play another important role as centres for wildlife conservation. International regulations were set in order to ensure standards for proper treatment of zoo animals. However, there are still places where wild animal welfare is in question. This paper aims to discuss the arguments for and against keeping wild animals in captivity and to emphasize the impact zoo conservation programmes could have on both animals and humans.

Key words: zoo animals; biodiversity conservation; ethics of animal use.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 109116

DOI

Mariam Khan & Gergana Balieva, 2021, KEEPING WILD ANIMALS IN CAPTIVITY – TRADITIONAL ENTERTAINMENT OR MODERN CONSERVATION APPROACH? Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 109–114, ISSN 2534-9333

THE EFFECT OF THE DEGREE OF DILUTION ON THE MOTILITY AND VELOCITY PARAMETERS OF SPERM IN RAMS

Hristina Blagova, Madlena Andreeva, Rossen Stefanov

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to trace the influence of the degree of dilution on the motility and velocity parameters of ram sperm. For this purpose, 12 ejaculates of 6 rams, Northeast Bulgarian fine- fleece breed. Sperm motility and velocity parameters were analyzed by computer sperm analyzer (CASA). Samples were diluted 1: 3, 1: 6, 1: 9, 1:12; 1:24 with extender 6 A. It was found that the total motility (TM) at dilutions from 1: 3 to 1:12 decreased by 2% (P≤0.001), while at 1:24 by 25% (P≤0.001. A significant effect of dilution was found in progressive sperm motility (PM). At dilutions from 1: 3 to 1:12 it decreased by 27.47% (P≤0.001), while at 1:24 the decrease was by 56.63% (P≤0.001). The degree of dilution affects some velocity parameters of the sperm, as Rapid, Medium, VCL, VSL, LIN, STR, WOB and AHL..

Key words: dilution, motility, velocity parameters, sperm, rams.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 117120

DOI

Hristina Blagova, Madlena Andreeva, Rossen Stefanov, 2021, THE EFFECT OF THE DEGREE OF DILUTION ON THE MOTILITY AND VELOCITY PARAMETERS OF SPERM IN RAMS. Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 117–120, ISSN 2534-9333

OVERVIEW OF COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME IN AGEING DOGS

Toni Todorov, AikateriniVathi

ABSTRACT

The paper presents an outline of what cognitive dysfunction in dogs is and current approaches to its treatment. With improved living standards and personal care for pets these days, an increase in their life span has been observed making the consideration of dealing with cognitive dysfunction more prevalent, as it commonly occurs in older dogs. Understanding the different aspects of this syndrome including its pathogenesis and clinical manifestation is crucial, in order to obtain an efficient treatment regime that will assist in alleviating the symptoms of this disorder.

Key words: Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome, brain pathology, dogs, nutrition.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 121129

DOI

Toni Todorov, & Aikaterini Vathi, 2021, OVERVIEW OF COGNITIVE DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME IN AGEING DOGS. Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 121–129, ISSN 2534-9333

SOME IMPORTANT BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN CLINICAL VETERINARY TOXICOLOGY

Metodi Petrichev

ABSTRACT

Biochemistry and medicine are inextricably linked. Health depends on the harmonious balance of biochemical reactions that take place in the body, and the disease – reflects abnormalities or abnormali-ties in biomolecules, biochemical reactions or processes.Progress in biochemical theory has shed light on many fields of medicine, the study of disease, contributing to the enrichment and further development of biochemistry. The biochemical approach in veterinary medicine is fundamental to discovering the causes of intoxication and prescribing therapy. Clinical veterinary toxicology as a system of specialized knowledge studies the causes, mechanism of interactions of poisons, clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment of animal poisoning.

Key words: biochemical parameters in animals, animal poisoning, clinical toxicology.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 130141

DOI

Metodi Petrichev, 2021, SOME IMPORTANT BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN CLINICAL VETERINARY TOXICOLOGY. Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 130–141. ISSN 2534-9333

APPLICATION OF PLATELET RICH PLASMA (PRP) IN TREATMENT OF A CONTUSED LACERATED WOUND IN A DOG: A CLINICAL CASE

Konstantin Aminkov

ABSTRACT

Second intention wound healing may be impaired by wound and host factors and thus more ad-vanced therapies are required for a fast and satisfactory outcome. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), rich in growth factors and cytokines essential for tissue repair, could improve wound healing.The use of regenerative therapies is becoming increasingly popular due to the low-invasive proce-dures needed to apply them. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is gaining interest due to its potential to stimulate and accelerate the wound healing process. The cytokines and growth factors forming PRP play a crucial role in the healing process.

The purpose of this article is to evaluate the effect of locally injected autologous PRP on second in-tention healing of contused lacerated wound in dog.Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) therapy was used in treating of contused lacerated wound in an 5 years old dog. The wound edges were infiltrated with 5 ml of platelet rich plasma three times over 10 days. The wound healed completely 25 days after treatment. This clinical case indicates that autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) can be successfully used in treating of contused lacerated wound in dog.

Key words: Platelet rich plasma (PRP), contused lacerated wound, platelet, plasma, dog.

TMVM, 2021, vol.6, No 2(11): 142150

DOI

Konstantin Aminkov, 2021, APPLICATION OF PLATELET RICH PLASMA (PRP) IN TREATMENT OF A CONTUSED LACERATED WOUND IN A DOG: A CLINICAL CASE. Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, vol.6, No 2(11): 142–150, ISSN 2534-9333