vol.5. N 2. 2020
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF IMMUNE RESPONSE IN GOATS AND SHEEP AFTER VACCINATION AGAINST CONTAGIOUS AGALACTIA – A FIELD STUDY
Cvetomir Evstatiev, Krasimira Gospodinova, Vladimir Petrov
The aim of the present study was to detect differences in immune response in sheep and goats after vaccination with a commercial vaccine against contagious agalactia. Serum samples from the two small ruminant species, reared in a mixed flock were collected on the day of vaccination and at post vaccination days 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and assayed by means of indirect ELISA. It was found out that antibody titre in-creased rapidly after application of vaccine, attained a maximum between the 7th and 30th day and rapidly declined after the 90th experimental day. Although the titres in sheep were higher than those in goats, no statistically significant difference was present.
Key words: Mycoplasma agalactia, Contagious agalactia, Goats, Vaccines, ELISA.
ACUTE PANCREATITIS IN DOGS – AGE, BREED AND SEX PREDISPOSITION
Acute pancreatitis in dogs is a disease that is more common than previously thought. There is evidence of breed, sex, age and individual differentiation of the incidence in dogs. This study was performed in 83 dogs with spontaneous acute pancreatitis. Dogs of all ages and breeds were included, regardless of the presence or absence of comorbidities. The average age of all dogs was 5.7 years (range 1 to 12 years). The highest proportion of patients were dogs at 5 years of age (16.87% /14 dogs). The established gender distribution in the group was 48 to 35 in favor of female dogs (57.83%).
Key words: Pancreatitis, dog, breed predisposition, sex predisposition
ULTRASOUND FINDINGS IN DOGS WITH SPLENIC HEMANGIOSARCOMA
There were 21 ultrasonographic studies conducted on separate dogs with the average age being 9.6±0.63 years with pathohistologically proven hemangiosarcoma of the spleen. The tumor lesions were with different sizes ranging from 0.5 to upwards of 7cm with irregular shape, uneven outlines and poor differentiation from the surrounding tissue. In the cases of bigger neoplastic formations heteroechogenity and internal cavities were easy to see and were caused by tissue breaking apart. In 23.8% of dogs with spleen hemangiosarcoma we found hemorrhagic peritoneal effusion. The combination of the tumor in the spleen with the presence of hemorrhagic peritonael effusion is a strong indicator of future hemangiosarcoma.
Key words: ultrasound, spleen hemangiosarcoma dogs.
DETECTION OF POLYMORPHISM IN FecB GENE IN BULGARIAN SHEEP BREEDS
Milena Bozhilova-Sakova, Ivona Dimitrova, Maya Ignatova, Tanya Ivanova
The purpose of the present work was to identify allelic variants of ovine FecB gene in three fine fleece sheep breeds in Bulgaria – Askanian, Caucasian and Karnobat Merino. Blood samples were collected from 30 animals of each breed (total of 90 samples). Genomic DNA was extracted using commercial kit for DNA purification from whole blood. After PCR amplification of FecB gene with specific primer set a PCR fragment with length 190 bp was obtained. Genotypes were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) method with AvaII restriction enzyme. The locus of Boroola gene was found to be monomorphic. Only allele ”+” was found and only genotype “++”, respectively. According to the results the investigated animals were non-carriers of the mutation.
Key words: sheep, PCR, RFLP, FceB, polymorphism
INFLUENCE OF THE CRYOPRESERVATION ON THE VITALITY OF THE SPERM OF THE DIFFERENT BREEDS OF RAMS
Madlena Andreeva, Rossen Stefanov
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of cryopreservation on the vitality of sperm from different breeds of rams. For the purpose of the study were used 15 healthy rams from three breeds – Ile-de-France, Lacaune, Synthetic Population of Bulgarian Milk (SPBM), during their insemination campaign. Sperm viability was determined by a Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) after staining with a kit containing Nigrosin-Eosin (NE) solution. After cryopreservation, the highest percentage of vital sperm were found in the Ile-de-France breed. A significance difference was found between the Ile-de-France and SPBM breeds (P˂0.001) and between Ile-de-France and Lacaune (P˂0.01), regarding the studied indicator.
Key words: cryopreservation, vitality, sperm, ram.
AGE RELATED SCANNING ELECTRON-MICROSCOPIC STUDIES ON TONGUE AND ANTERIOR LARYNX OF THE BROILER CHICKS
Shailja Bansal, Pawan Kumar
The aim of present study was to investigate the scanning electron microscopic structure of the tongue and anterior larynx of thirty Cubb broiler chicks of one week to one month (7-32 days) age. The tongue was triangular in shape having an apex, a body, and a root. The dorsal surface of the apex and body was having a large number of filiform-like papillae whereas; the root was smooth devoid of papillae. A papillary crest and a transverse row of caudal lingual papillae were present at the junction of the body and the root. The papillae at higher magnification presented microplicae of varying patterns. Gustatory papillae or taste buds were not observed in any portion of the tongue.
The anterior larynx was having centrally placed laryngeal cleft, laryngeal mound on both sides, 4 rows of medial papillae, a transverse row of pharyngeal papillae, and a row of giant papillae. The floor of the laryngeal cleft presented a meshwork like structure along with some ciliated cells and openings of glandular ducts. The dorsal surface of the different structures of the larynx showed epithelial cells having varying patterns of microplicae. A few structural differences were observed in the tongue and the anterior larynx of birds of different age groups.
Key words: tongue, cranial larynx, papillae, scanning electron-microscopy, Cobb broiler chicks.
MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE BLOOD VESSELS OF THE ELBOW REGION OF THE DOG
I. Ruzhanova-Gospodinova, I. Georgiev, L. Hristakiev, G. I. Georgiev, G. D. Georgiev
The purpose of this study is to investigate in details the major blood vessels and their branches in the structures of the elbow joint through corrosion, radiography, and computed tomography angiography. The vessels were visualized on 17 canine thoracic limbs. The corrosion cast was obtained after the introduction of Duracryl-Plus dental plastics through the brachial artery, freezing and subsequent tissue lysis. Barium sulfate introduced through the same artery postmortem was used to visualize the vessels by radiography. For the purpose of computed tomography angiography, an arterial catheter was introduced into the brachial artery through which a contrast solution of Ultravist 300 at a rate of 0.5 ml per second was injected using an infusion apparatus. Variations in arterial anastomoses in the elbow region have been identified.
Key words: dog, elbow region, blood supply, radiography, computed tomography angiography
STUDY OF THE INTERFERON-INDUCING ACTIVITY OF A VACCINE STRAIN OF BOVINE RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS
Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is major viral component of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in all classes of cattle but particularly young beef and dairy calves. The actuality of this infection is preserved regardless of the change in the technology of cattle breeding in our country at the present stage and therefore the study of immune factors is essential. Along with studying different immune factors, we proved that the vaccine strain „An-87″of the BRSV has a well-defined interferon-inducing activity. The highest values of interferon are found in the secretions of the respiratory tract in tracheally applied antigen on the 3d day.
Key words: Bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine respiratory disease, interferon, vaccine strain.
PREVALENCE OF DIROFILARIA IMMITIS IN DOGS IN BULGARIA
A study on the prevalence of the nematode Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Bulgaria is presented. 1709 domestic and stray dogs from 10 cities in Bulgaria were studied in veterinary clinic “Sveti Georgi” for the period from 1 January 2017 until 30 June 2019. For this purpose, „IDEX SNAP 4Dx Plus TEST“ was used for immunochromatographic detection of Ag in the blood of the patients tested. Of all 1609 animals tested, 223 were antigen positive and they were also tested by the modified Knott method for the presence of microfilariae. 9 of them were negative for presence of microfilaria and 11 of them had a co–invasion with Dirofilaria repens. The total percentage of positive animals compared to all tested animals was 13.04%. The obtained values show that the highest percentage of infested animals was in the Central Southern Region with 17.8% and the lowest is in the Southwestern Region – 5.5%. The largest number of infested dogs was found in Plovdiv region – 20.2%, and the lowest in Sofia region – 4.8%. The distribution for other cities is as follows: Ruse region – 18.7%, Svishtov region – 18.4%, Burgas region – 16.5%, Lovech region – 15.4%, Asenovgrad region – 14.6%, Gotse Delchev region – 11.3%, Dobrich region – 9.3%, and Vidin region – 7.9%.
Key words: Dirofilaria immitis, dogs, Bulgaria, Аg immunochromatographic tests, prevalance. Introduction
EVIDENCE FOR ACCURACY OF APPLIED METHOD IN DECODING SOUND SIGNALS
Pavlina Spiridonova, Violeta Alexandrova
The current study aimed to provide experimental results for proving that computer analysis is an accurate and valuable method in decoding sound signals. We used biomonitoring as well as specific computer tool for machine analysis of one word with stress on the first and on the second syllable. The same methodology we applied with recordings of dog’s barking, occurred in one concrete situation, to see if we would accomplish promising results. We established a difference in both examinations.
Key words: audiogram, computer analysis.
STUDIES OF LEAD RESIDUES IN BONES AND FEATHERS OF GRIFFON VULTURES
Petar Stamberov, Tandzhu Mehmedov
The aim of the present research is to study the content of lead in feathers and bone samples in eight carcasses of Griffon Vultures (Gyps fulvus, Habitz 1870) from a region in southwestern Bulgaria. In order to exclude surface lead contamination, the feather samples were preliminary examined by X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy. The samples of lead concentration in feathers and bones were analyzed by the methods of ICP-MS Spectrometry. The results displayed residues of lead in the feathers and bones only in some individuals.
Key words: Griffon vultures, lead, samples, bones, feathers, ICP-MS Spectrometry. Introduction Incidents
THE RAW DOG FOOD – ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
In recent years, raw foods have become increasingly popular in the world, for the dog’s owners. Contradictory data on this type of diet have been reported in the literature. Some authors note that the use of raw foods has a beneficial effect on the health of the dog, while others point to the food safety and health risks of both the dog and the owner. The purpose of the current survey is to analyze current data on the advantages and disadvantages of raw foods, known as “Bones and Raw Food” or “Biologically Appropriate Raw Food” (BARF)/„Raw meat-based diets” (RMBDs).
Key words: raw food, BARF, RMBDs, dog.
HEAVY METALS ACCUMULATION IN BLACK SEA ECOSYSTEMS: SEAWATER, SEDIMENT, ALGAE, BENTHIC ORGANISMS
Iliyan Manev, Veselin Kirov, Hristina Neshovska
The aim of the current review study was to present data on the accumulation of various heavy metals in the Black Sea ecosystems. Subject of study were Pb, Cd, As, Hg, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Fe etc. and their content in seawater, sediment, algae and various benthic organisms. Available data from the Bulgarian coast and also from different Black Sea areas were presented.
Key words: heavy metals, Black sea, algae, mussels, benthos
LEGISLATION ANALYSIS RELATED TO HEAVY METAL POLLUTION OF MARINE HYDROBIONTS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT
Hristina Neshovska, Veselin Kirov, Iliyan Manev
The purpose of the study was to analyze the national and European legislation related to the pollution of marine ecosystems with various heavy metals. The subject of examination was regulatory documents that determine the maximum levels of certain heavy metals in hydrobionts and their environment. Summary analysis and historical review of Ordinance No. 5/2015 determining the maximum levels of certain contaminants in foods has been performed, as well as an analysis of Regulation 1881/2006 (EС) and Directive 2013/39/EU. Based on current research we could make the following conclusions: European legislation in this field has been fully implemented in national regulation act; values and maximum available concentration of heavy metals in marine water and inhabitants were presented in various documents, which make their interpretation complicated.
Key words: hydrobionts, heavy metal, National and European legislation.