vol.5. N 1. 2020
COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF TETRACYCLINE DETECTION IN FOX TEETH IN THE REGIONS WITH ORAL VACCINATION AGAINST RABIES DURING 2016-2017 IN BULGARIA
Darinka Ilieva, Reneta Petrova, Valеntina Marasheva
During the period 2016–2017 in connection with control the effectiveness of oral vaccination, laboratory studies of tetracycline detection of teeth fox (Vulpes vulpes) were carried out in Bulgaria. From the regions with rabies vaccination during last two years total 1834 samples for presence of biomarker tetracycline were examinated and determined age categories of target animals. The teeth samples were collected from a total 578 settlements in 16 regions. The data indicated, that the rate of prevalence tetracycline in fox tееth varied between 65–73%.
Key words: tetracycline, oral vaccination, rabies, fox.
EXPERIMENTAL STAPHYLOCOCCAL INFECTION IN BUDGERIGAR (Melopsittacus undulatus) – DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY
Galabin Mladenov, Teodora P. Popova, Katerina Todorova
Staphylococcal infection in the budgerigar is one of the most common diseases in this species of animal. Studies have been carried out using various methods of experimentally infecting budgerigars with Staphylococcus aureus. The course of the disease, the clinical manifestation of staphylococcosis, as well as the pathological-anatomical changes are followed. Studies have been conducted on the effect of anti-biotic therapy, depending on the stage of the infection.
Key words: budgerigar, infection, Staphylococcus aureus, diagnostics, treatment.
ECHOGRAPHIC RESEARCH ON HEALTHY DOGS AND DOGS WITH BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERPLASIA IN CONNECTION WITH THE BIOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF SPERMATOZOA
M. Genov, M. Ivanova, D. Gradinaska
Ultrasound examinations of the prostate gland, testis and epididymis have been performed to diag-nose benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in dogs, and a search has been sought for changes in the basic spermatological parameters of the gametes. Ultrasound analyzes show that BPH leads to changes in tes-ticular and prostatic echogenicity and the presence of one or more hypoechoic cystic structures. Sperm Computer Assay (CASA) proves that dogs with BPH have changes in the basic biological parameters of sperm, with a significantly increasing percentage of low-motile and static sperm at the expense of fast-moving ones. An important morphometric marker is the Head area index (µm²) of sperm. In dogs with BPH, the difference with healthy dogs was significantly demonstrated and the Head area was 20.89 ± 2.34, while in healthy dogs this value was 29.11 ± 6.21 (p <0.001).
Key words: benign prostatic hyperplasia, dogs, CASA.
PUBERTY AGE AND BODY WEIGHT OF THE WATER BUFFALO HEIFERS
Vladimir Plansky, Dimiter Dimitrov
The evolution of WATER buffalo breeding is related to reproduction of water buffaloes and main-taining and increase of their population. A problem is the delayed maturation of the body and the occur-rence of puberty. This aim of this study was to clarify and confirm issues such as age (in days) and body weight (in kg) during the puberty. It has been performed on the basis of 71 water buffalo heifers observed. Within our surveys, the age of puberty of young buffalo cows of the breed known as Bulgarian Murrah varies from 404.3 ± 3.9 to 543.2 ± 19.5 days, the mean body weight being 359.6 ± 13.3 kg. The age of the start of puberty (i.e. the maturity) is been affected by the season of birth. Most (70.9%) of water buffalo heifers exhibit signs of puberty occurrence between September and December, included. This can be explained by the shorter daylight time that results in higher levels of melatonin in animals during this season and the positive impact of indoleamine on their sexual centrum and reproduc-tive function.
Key words: water buffalo, puberty, reproduction, hormones, season
HEAVY METALS ACCUMULATION IN THE SYSTEM RATTUS NORVEGICUS – HYMENOLEPIS DIMINUTA FROM INDUSTRIAL AREA IN BULGARIA
Ivelin Vladov, Veselin Nanev, Margarita Gabrashanska
Rat intestinal parasites have attracted great interest as bioindicators for environmental quality since they can bioconcentrate several heavy metals to much higher concentrations than the tissues of the hosts. Our aim was to assess the potential of the cestode Hymenolepis spp. as a bioindicator for heavy metal pollution in an industrial area of the town of Maglizh, Bulgaria. The level of Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb and Cd was detected in the livers of rats and in the cestode. A bioconcentration factor (BF), Concentration para-site/Concentration liver, was determined. A high BF was observed for Cd, Pb and Mn. The results revealed that Hymenolepis spp. has much great ability to bio accumulate heavy metals compared with their final hosts. Therefore, the system Rattus norvegicus- Hymenоlepis spp. could be a very useful tool for environmental monitoring of the terrestrial areas.
Key words: heavy metals, rat, Hymenolepis spp
CLINICAL SIGNS OF EXTENDED ESTROUS FOLLOWED BY PREGNANCY IN BITCH: A CASE REPORT
Yordan Todorov, Mihail Chervenkov, Emil Sapundjiev
In this report is presented the case of extended estrous accompanied by early embryonic develop-ment in bitch. The animal is 3 year’s old Jack Russell terrier, with history of two successful pregnancies. On the day 8 and 9 after the beginning of a normal estrous, the bitch mate with a 7 years old male dog of the same breed. In the following two weeks after the copulation the clinical signs of estrous continued. The whole blood test was in norm and the echographic examination does not reveal any pathological changes of the uterus. Only the vaginal smear gives some consideration for local infection so treatment of the genital organs was prescribed. After treatment the clinical signs disappeared. Thirty five days after breeding, another ultrasound was performed and pregnancy with 5 fetuses was found. On the 64th day after copulation, five puppies were born alive. This report shows that even if bitch expressed clinical signs of extended estrous, a possibility of early pregnancy must be taken in consideration, especially when there is information for successful mating with male.
Key words: dog, estrus cycle, embryonic development
PROGNOSTIC AND DIAGNOSTIC VALUES OF ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS (APPs) AND ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED BACTERIAL CYSTITIS IN DOGS
Hany Hassan, Ahmed Zaghawa, Mahmoud Aly, Ahmed Kamr, Mohamed Nayel, Mostafa Abd El Gaber Mohamed, Ali Abdelazeim, Nehal Elgamasy
The aim of the study is the further use of ultrasound and acute phase proteins in diagnosis of bacte-rial cystitis in dogs. The present research was performed on 15 dogs apparently healthy, their weight were ranged from 20±0.5 Kg BW. Divided into 2 groups, Group (1): contained 10 dogs sub-jected to experimentally induce bacterial cystitis by pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Group (2): contained 5 dogs act as control group. The diseased dogs showed inappetance, abdominal pain, pollakiuria, stranguria, arched back, lethargy and depression, compared to the control group which was were very active, in good physical condition and had normal appetite. The biochemical alteration included no significant change in kidney functions as serum creatinine, BUN and uric acid. Significant increase in serum haptoglobin, SAA from the 3rd day after induction till the end of experiment. There is significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin from the 3rd day till the end of experiment, com-pared to the control group. Urine analysis illustrated alkaline pH, negative glycosuria, and proteinuria, compared to the control group. Ultrasound imaging showed increase of bladder wall echogenicity, de-crease in circumscribed anechoic area represented the urine which appear hyperechoic and contain sus-pended material which represents cellular debris, irregular bladder mucosa these changes at the 3rd day till the 15th day, compared to the control group. Macroscopic findings of dogs’ urinary bladder showed diffuse thickening of the bladder wall and haemorrhage of dogs with induced bacterial cystitis. Micro-scopically, urinary bladder showed destruction and desquamation of transitional epithelium in the lumen of the urinary bladder. The lamina propria and submucosa showed haemorrhages and congested blood vessels.
Key words: Dogs, Staphylococcus aureus, Cystitis, Acute phase proteins, Ultrasonography.
BLOOD ANTIOXIDANT/OXIDANT PARAMETERS IN RATS EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH FASCIOLA HEPATICA AND EXPOSED TO CADMIUM
Veselin Nanev, Ivelin Vladov, Margarita Gabrashanska
The aim of this study was to investigate antioxidant/oxidant status of blood of rats experimentally in-fected with Fasciola hepatica combined with chronic cadmium administration. Parameters of antioxi-dant/oxidant status were malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and glutathione perox-idase (GPx) in blood of rats experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. The level of cadmium (Cd) was determined as well. The data showed that oxidative/ antioxidative imbalance was developed due to an in-creased MDA level, reduced enzyme activity in double treated animals compared to control animals and these with only one treatment. Cd level was significantly increased in all rats received Cd (non-infected or infected with F. hepatica). Our study leads us to conclude that co-exposure to Cd and helminths causes a more pro-nounced increase in the blood oxidative stress in the hosts.
Key words: cadmium, Fasciola hepatica, oxidative/antioxidative imbalance.
SEASON OF DELIVERY, AGE OF FIRST FERTILISATION AND MILKING YIELD DURING THE FIRST LACTATION PERIOD OF HEIFERS
Vladimir Plansky, Kalin Hristov
In recent years, in some regions of the Republic of Bulgaria production of cow’s milk has been focused on the construction and establishing industrial cow breeding farms (complexes). In order to meet the need to ensure relevant increase of cows population for such large farms, it is important to provide young reproduc-tive animals. The aim of this study is to evaluate correlation between the age of fertilisation versus the birth season (autumn, winter, spring, summer) and the quantity of cow’s milk during the 305 lactation days. Many authors share the opinion about impact of the season of birth of female calves and the type nutrition as key factors influencing all these indicators. We have set us the task to find out, what is the role of these issues in a large, industrial, cow breeding complex of 6.270 large ruminants (bovines). Within our surveys, the age of the first fertilization of the heifers included in reproduction campaign is really dependent on the season of their birth. The earlier is the fertilization of those born in summer-autumn, respective time gap being 24 days compared to those born in the autumn-winter part of the year. The average milk yield of 616 primers (of first calf) for 305 lactation days is 8.164 kg. This milking rate is by 355 kg more than the one demonstrated by those born during the spring-summer season compared to those born in the autumn-winter season.
Key words: fertilization, heifers, first lactation, milk yield.
HYPOSPADIA IN SMALL RUMINANTS: A CASE REPORT
Kalin Hristov, Aleksandar Stoimenov
Hypospadias is a rare congenital malformation of the urethra reported in dogs, sheep, goats, cattle, rats, nonhuman primates and humans. Affected animals may have other congenital or developmental anomalies such as cryptorchidism, which is to be the most common congenital anomaly associated with hypospadias. In this clinical case is described condition of six weeks old male goat, weighing 10 kg, in Vrazhdebna Training and Experimental Field Centre of the University of Forestry, with signs of urine scalding on the ventral perineum. Physical examination revealed aplasia of the penis and the urethra opened cranially to the scrotum. The diagnosis was made as hypospadias and penile aplasia.
Key words: hypospadias; penile aplasia; male goat.
SCREENING TESTS OF DETECTION ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS IN BULGARIA DURING 2016–2017
Valentina Marasheva-Georgieva, Darinka Ilieva, Reneta Petrova
In 2016, with blocking ELISA for antibodies in individual blood sera from cattle, seropositive reagents were found in 2 districts: Lovech – 3.8% and Montana – 35%. In 2017, the seropositive reagents in Blagoevgrad district were 17.4%. In the other 2 districts – Lovech and Sofia-city the laboratory tests were with negative result. In 2016–2017, in 3 districts a screening studies of single blood samples was carried out, for which was not perform statistically reliable results. During 2017 in NRL „EBL“ were using ELISA test for screening of antibodies in pooled and individual milk samples against gp 51. In 9 districts, 134 pooled and 3 individual milk samples were tested and a total of 101 positive reagents were detected. For control and prevention of EBL in Bulgaria, European funding is needed to implement a monitoring program.
Key words: enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), screening, ELISА.
PROBLEMATIC INFECTIONS IN PARROTS – STREPTOCOCCAL AND ENTEROCOCCAL INFECTIONS, DIAGNOSTICS ANS CONTROL
Galabin Mladenov, Teodora P. Popova
Parrots are becoming more and more attractive pets in our country. Due to the cage nurturing and the stressful situations to that they are often exposed, the morbidity in these birds is relatively high. Our studies have shown that the some of the most common infections are streptococcal and enterococcal infections, The main methods of diagnosis of these diseases as well as the approaches for treatment and prophylaxis are presented.
Key words: parrots, infections, diagnostics, treatment, prophylaxis.
A CASE OF MULTIPLE MIXED INVASION WITH ECTOPARASITES IN GOATS
Petyo Prelezov, Nikola Nizamov
The current study involves 15 goats from a local breed, naturally infested with ectoparasitic insects. The goats come from a farm in the village of Yazdach, Stara Zagora County, property of a private owner. Our visit to the farm occurred after a signal given by the owner who informed us that the goats were scratching themselves and had exhibited strong discomfort. 15 animals were examined and 14 of them were found to be infested with one or more species of insects. 6 of them (40 %) were infested with sucking lice from the spe-cies Linognathus stenopsis Burmeister (1838), family Linognathidae, suborder Anoplura of order Phthirap-tera; 7 (46.6 %) – with biting lice from species Bovicola caprae Gurlt (1843), family Bovicolidae, suborder Ischnocera of order Phthiraptera; 9 (60%) – with fleas from the species Pulex irritans, Linnaeus (1758) be-longing to the Pulicidae family, order Siphonaptera and 2 (13,3 %) – with hippoboscids from the species Hippobosca equina Linnaeus (1758) from Hippoboscidae family of order Diptera. In 5 of the examined animals was found a monoinfestation and a mixed one in the rest of goats: in 6 of them with two species and in 3 of them with 3 species of insects. The average Intensity of Infestation (II) with Linognathus stenopsis was 750, with Bovicola caprae – 328. With Pulex irritans II was 11,3 and with Hippobosca equina – 1. A part of the ectoparasites (178) were collected and conserved in 70o ethanol with the purpose of labor-atory identification, morphological examination and preparing the photographic material.
Key words: goats, ectoparasites, lice, fleas, Linognathus stenopsis, Bovicola caprae, Pulex irritans, Hippobosca equine.
SEROPREVALENCE AND RISK FACTOR ASSESSMENT OF BOVINE TUBERCULOSIS IN CROSSBRED CATTLE OF CHATTOGRAM METROPOLITAN AREA, BANGLADESH
Pankaj Chakraborty, Md. Abdul Matin Prodhan
This study was aimed to measure the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine tuberculo-sis (bTB) in crossbred cattle in Chattogram Metropolitan area, Bangladesh. A total of 289 crossbred cattle were screened using ELISA and their epidemiological data were collected using a pre-set questionnaire. An overall 5.88% seroprevalence of bTB was found in crossbred cattle in this study. Seroprevalence of bTB in crossbred cattle was significantly associated with breed, coughing, age and parity as analyzed by the multi-variate analysis of risk factors. The results of the present study prioritize the implementation of appropriate measures to control bTB in crossbred cattle in this region.
Key words: bovine tuberculosis, crossbred cattle, risk factors, seroprevalence.
USE OF BONE MARROW (BM) AND CONCENTRATED BONE MARROW ASPIRATE (CBMA) FOR TREATMENT OF CRITICAL LONG FRACTURES
Bone growth is determined by many factors – immobility of bone ends, osteoblastic potency, contact of the bone margins and distance between them. In critically long defects, where the distance between the bone ends is greater than the diameter of the bone, healing processes are compromised because of the limited pos-sibility of bone communication. Applying the gold standard – autotransplantation from a rib, iliac bone, or other donor organ is not always possible, and new healing possibilities are investigated. Synthetic osteoinduc-tive biomaterials such as hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, collagen, composites, and others are success-fully used as carriers, but their efficacy is limited without their activation by a biological organic autologous osteoinductor. Recent studies have shown that platelet-rich plasma, bone marrow aspirate, or tissue growth factors have an exceptionally high potential for autologous osteoinductors. The purpose of this article is to compare the osteoinductive potential of bone marrow and concentrated bone marrow aspirate in the healing of critically long fractures without autotransplantation.
Key words: bone marrow, concentrated bone marrow aspirate, critical long fractures.
INFLUENCE OF STARTER CULTURES ON THE QUALITY AND HYGIENE INDICATORS OF RAW-DRIED “SUDZHUK” AND FILLET
Valentin Nikolov, Stanislav Radanski
The application of selected microbial cultures, accelerating the ripening process of dried meat products, has a beneficial effect on economic results, but has changed their organoleptic and quality indicators. In recent years, however among the consumers there have been a return to the tastes of Bulgarian raw-dried products produced by traditional technologies. In the present study, indicators of raw-dried “sudzhuk” and fillet, produced in both ways, were compared. The research has shown that even without the addition of microbial cultures, based on the natural microflora of the raw materials and the production environment typical to the geographical region, “sudzhuk” and fillet can be produced with good drying characteristics (aw and pH) and excellent organoleptic qualities.
Key words: dried “sudzhuk”, fillet, starter cultures.
THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF ELECTROCHEMICALLY ACTIVATED AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS AT CERTAIN INFECTIONS IN PETS
Toshka Petrova, Teodora P. Popova, Milko Petrov, Ana Georgieva
Studies have been carried out to determine the therapeutic effect of electrochemically activated aqueous solutions anolyte and catholyte in some species of pets (dogs, cats, gerbils, hedgehogs) with various infec-tions. Studies have been conducted in patients with bite wounds, dermatitis, conjunctivitis and viral diseases. It has been found that anolyte and catholyte have a pronounced healing effect not only when used as adjunct therapy to the conventional but also in the cases of self-administration.
Key words: anolyte, catholyte, infections, therapeutic effect
TRACHEAL LAVAGE – A METHOD OF SAMPLING THE LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT IN SNAKES
Seven Mustafa, Nadya Zlateva-Panayotova, Georgi Marinov
The snake’s respiratory infections are briefly reviewed and discussed. Prior to treatment, it is essential to determine the causative agent of the respiratory infection. The tracheal lavage is described as a preferred method to obtain material for examinations and detecting pathogens from the respiratory system. The aspirates can be used for parasitological, virological, cytological, microbiological, molecular and other examinations. A patient with chronic respiratory disturbances was used for the purpose of this pilot study.
Key words: tracheal lavage, respiratory infection, snake, radiography, ultrasonography
NON-SPECIFIC RESISTАNCE AND ADAPTIVE CAPABILITIES OF NEW-BORN CALVES, BORN BY COWS BREED AT DIFFERENT TECHNOLOGICAL REGIMES
The dynamics of ACTH, cortisol, protein fractions and lysozyme activity of blood were studied from calves during the first 30 days of their postnatal life, their adaptability and natural resistance are determined by the functional state of the mother’s organism during pregnancy and lactation in connection with the tech-nologies of management. It was found, that the hormonal status, natural resistance and adaptability of the new-born calves is different related to the technological regime with the cows during pregnancy period.
Key words: non-specific resistance, newborn calves, hormonal activity, adaptive capabilities.