vol.4. N 2. 2019
The study was conducted with 40 clinically healthy (equal in both sexes) broiler chickens. Biosamples were taken at the end of the finishing period (day 41) in each group, from each bird, from all parts of the intestinal tract. Durable histological preparations were made by classical methods with each biosample. In the histological study, it was found that there was a microstructured change in all segments of the intestinal mucosa in the two experimental groups – first one, which received Ecodiar® liquid 5% to the drinking water, in dosage 0.5 ml of drug formulation/L water, and second one, which received Ecodiar® powder 5% to the feed, in dosage 0.5 g of drug formulation/kg of feed. In the third experimental group, which received 5 ml of 1% oregano oil/kg of feed and in the fourth (control) group, no histological changes in the intestinal wall were found. In the histometric study, the highest intestinal villi were found in the ileum, followed by the duodenum and the jejunum. Intestinal crypts had the largest outer diameter in the caecum, followed by the ileum, jejunum and duodenum. These two parameters showed different histometric values in each of the test groups of broiler chickens and each of the intestinal segments examined.
Key words: histological study, chickens, oregano oil, gut.
INFECTIOUS PANCREATIC NECROSIS (IPN) MIXED AND ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS IN THE TROUT AQUACULTURE IN BULGARIA
Infectious diseases in aquaculture rarely occur on their own. Coinfections – mixed or associated occur commonly. Infectious pancreatic necrosis is a viral infection that occurs in juvenile trout. The IPN virus is very resistant, the transmission is vertical and horizontal and the sustainability out of the host is huge. In Bulgaria, mixed infections involving fish viruses are not enough studied. The global data is also insufficient. Trout aquaculture in our geographical settings often suffer from slight parasitic invasions and transitory bacterial infections. Notably, when it is established under certain factors, some of them become epizootic. The world’s largest burden is onto viral infections. They occurs rarely but with incorrigible damages. For the past 8 years in Bulgaria only the IPN virus – in seemingly acute form, has been detected. This work presents clinical cases identified in the NRL BRMMP and a summary of the current global experience of the IPN coinfections – mixed and associated.
Key words: IPN, IPNV, viral infections, mixed infections, associated infections, coinfections, trout aquaculture
In this study were included 30 goats naturally infested by lice. The goats come from a herd of 300 animals of a local breed, belonging to a private owner from Mogila village, Yambol county. The visit to the farm was a response to a signal of distress from the owner who informed us that the goats were scratching themselves and were expressing strong discomfort. The study proved the presence of sucking lice belonging to the species Linognathus stenopsis, Burmeister (1838) from the family Linognathidae and order Phthiraptera. 28 of the 30 observed animals turned out to be infested (93.3 %). The treatment was carried out with ivermectin (Pandexтм) in dosage 0.2 mg/kg of body weight. The results were observed on the 3rd and the 14th day after treatment. The whole body of all the goats included in the study was inspected. No viable lice were found during the first and the second control examination. The eggs of the parasite which were present on the third day were not discovered on the 14th day which proved the high efficacy of the macrocyclic lactone ivermectin against Linognathus stenopsis after a single treatment.
Key words: goats, lice, Linognathus stenopsis,ivermectin, efficacy.
Еxtrauterine pregnancy (or ectopic) pregnancy, is a rare condition, when embryos or fetuses are located outside the uterus. The objective of this work was to describe two cases of abdominal ectopic pregnancy found during a routine spay of stray cats. Before surgery in both animals abdominal enlargement was detected. Fetuses were located in the abdominal cavity, covered adhesiv by omentum, with no clear traces of fetal membranes. In the first cat 3 and in the other 2 deformed fetuses in size from 3 to 6 cm were found. In the second animals the fetal limbs and head were completely formed. Bones ossification was visualized by X-ray. The uterus size in queens were same during a non-pregnant state without visible external changes. After neutering animals recovered quickly. The second operation was performed more than three months after the end of the breeding season. It was assumed that the described clinical cases were refer to secondary abdominal pregnancy. They are evidence that ectopic pregnancy in cats can be detected not only as an accidental finding but also by assumption of prolonged pregnancy.
Key words: cat, ectopic pregnancy, fetuses.
Atypical pneumonia was proved in cetacean cows which died in the village of Boeritsa near Ihtiman after import from Austria. Fibrinous-purulent changes were detected both in lungs and pleura. Pathological anatomical findings were characteristic of pasteurellosis, but no Pasteurella bacteria were identified.Serratia marcescens and small amounts of Staphylococcus xylosus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans were isolated after the microbiological examination of the material from the lungs. Antibiotic poly-resistance was detected in vitro. This indicated that they are most likely selected in the animals after frequent treatment with such agents by almost all groups to suppress conditionally pathogenic infections, possibly due to hygiene weaknesses in breeding and feeding in the farm they had inhabited prior to their import into Bulgaria. The stress during the long transportation and adaptation to the new living conditions is a prerequisite for their multiplication, which in vivo is accompanied by an increased virulence and development of fatal pneumonia.
Key words: atypical pneumonia cows, transport, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus xylosus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans
A clinical case of European yew tree poisoning in two geldings in a mountain ranch for adventure riding is described. According to the owner, the horses have become suddenly ill. A more detailed history revealed that horses have eaten twigs and needles of coniferous tree, located in the immediate vicinity of a paddock. Prior to death nervousness, incoordination, muscle trembling, difficulty breathing, weakness and convulsions were observed. At necropsy the most prominent gross lesions include the presence of partially clotted blood, lung edema, cardiac dilatation and hyperemia of the stomach and small intestinal mucosa. In gastric content the presence of partially digested twigs and large number of needles of European yew was identified.
Key words: horses, poisoning, yew, paddock, heart.
The localization of adult forms of Dirofilaria immitis in the heart provokes the development of the so-called “Caval syndrome” and lead to the development of severe cardiorespiratory disorders. The animals are in a severe general condition and surgical interventions must be précised as severity and duration. The purpose of this article is to revealed the methods and surgical techniques for removing these forms of the parasite from the heart as well as to describe the most common complications in the postoperative period.
Key words: dirofilaria, surgical treatment, heartworm, dog
Minimally invasive techniques are becoming increasingly popular in human medicine due to rapid patient recovery, minimal tissue damage, and a significant reduction in complications in the postoperative period. The development of this field in veterinary medicine is relatively slow due to some limiting factors such as specific equipment, higher cost of procedures, and lack of experience and training of specialists. The purpose of this article is to show the areas of application of mini invasive surgical techniques in veterinary medicine as well as the advantages over the classical techniques..
Key words: mini-invasive surgical techniques, dog, cat
Acupuncture is mentioned for the first time more than two thousand years ago, and the interest in it is still prevailing. Thanks to this, it is no longer defined only as a theory of Traditional Chinese medicine, but is accepted as applicable and effective. In other words, „if something has worked well for more than two millennia, then there is something useful in it“.Acupuncture is included in the curriculum of many of the prestigious veterinary universities and clinics around the world. Thousands of veterinary and humane specialists apply acupuncture every day in their practice as an additional or alternative therapy.The aim of this publication is to summarize the main achievements, methods of application and effectiveness of acupuncture in veterinary medicine by providing independent clinical trials and the results thereof.
Key words: Acupuncture, veterinary medicine, physical methods.
A comparative retrospective study of retrovirus infections among domestic cats was made in Small Animal Clinic of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, Stara Zagora.Period from 1st January 2013 to December 31st 2017is researched. As a diagnostic method was used SNAP® FIV/FeLV Combo Plus Test Kit, produced by IDEXX Laboratories Inc. Westbrook, Maine, USA.Exactly 130 blood sample tests were examined, 44 of which were positive and 96 were negative results. None of the tests were positive for together FIV ab and FeLV ag (p27).
Key words: cats, ELISA, SNAP Combo, FIV, FeLV.
The development of cell-mediated immunity in rams was analyzed by the breed-dependent patterns of the responsiveness of peripheral blood lymphocytes to common mitogens (phytohemagglutinin, PHA; concanavalin A, ConA; poke-weed mitogen, PWM), in a mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC), in order to establish the basic immune parameters in clinically normal rams.Investigations were carried out on 26 rams from the breeds Karakachan and Copper-Red Shoumen. It was established that there are close differences between prosliferative activity of lymphocytes of the two groups of animals. The immune parameters obtained for the two local sheep breeds may serve as a basis for further research on lamb systemic immune responsiveness regarding differences among breeds.
Key words: rams native breeds of sheep, Karakachan breed, Copper-Red Shoumen breed, mitogens, cell-mediated immunity, lymphocytes.
THE FULFILLMENT OF GENETIC POTENTIAL FOR EGG PRODUCTION OF HYBRID LOHMANN BROWN CHICKENS ON AGRIPRO FARM IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF VALANDOVO IN REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA
Zhivko Gacovski, Biljana Petrovska, Goce Cilev, Fejzula Fejzulah, Natasha Petrovska
Lohmann Brown chickens falls into hybrids with increased productivity of eggs with the genetic potential to produce eggs up to 320 eggs a year per hen and are grown in all climatic conditions.The purpose of this research is to determine how to meet the genetic potential for egg production in chickens hybrid Lohmann Brown, compared with the production results of eggs from this hybrid, derived by applying intensive technology of farm Agripro in Valandovo R. Macedonia in production in year 2014 and 2015. Research is conducted on a sample of 20,500 laying hens in year 2014 and 21,000 laying hens in year 2015.
A comparative analysis from the conducted survey revealed that deviation from the genetic poten-tial for the production of eggs in the hybrid chickens Lohmann Brown, compared with production poten-tial of eggs from this hybrid, indicates that in 2014 statistical variation coefficient amounts 18 eggs or 5.62% (VC%), while for 2015 was 21.5 eggs or 6.72% (VC%) annually per laying hens. The average deviation for both production years 2014/2015 amounts to 19.75 eggs and 6.17% annually (VC%) per laying hens. From the results we can conclude that the deviation from the genetic potential for the production of eggs in this hybrid of chickens is minimal, because the production is organised in conditions of intensive technology recommended by the manufacturer of the hybrid Lohmann Brown.
Key words: Chickens, laying hens, hybrid Lohmann Brown, genetic potential, variational coefficient (VC%), eggs.
The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of visualization of fetal and uterine structures in the second and third pregnancy trimester in goats through three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography. Twenty Bulgarian local goats, aged between 2 and 4 years, weighing 46–52 kg with previously confirmed pregnancy were used in the study. Ultrasound investigations were performed during the 56 – 133 day of pregnancy, at a 2-week interval, via transabdominal approach and an 8.0 MHz linear transducer. Initially, the fetal and uterine structures were visualized in two-dimensional mode (B-mode), and then reconstructed into three-dimensional images using 3D software of the ultrasound machine (SonoScape S2 Vet). The results of this study have shown that 3D ultrasonography is a comparatively easy method to visualize individual parts of the fetus and its internal organs during the second and third pregnancy trimester. At the beginning of the second pregnancy trimester, it was possible visualization and differentiation of 3D ultrasound images of the fetal head and body. At the end of this period (90th day of pregnancy) is visualized clear outline of the skull of the fetus, as well as fetal orbit. During the last pregnancy trimester, internal fetal organs such as the forestomaches, kidneys, heart, ribs, etc. were visualized by 3D ultrasound examination. Throughout the study period, clearly 3D images of placentomes were visualized. The analysis of the obtained results shows that three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound examination of the fetal structures in the second and third pregnancy trimester in goats provides an opportunity for detailed observation of individual parts of the body and its internal organs. The resulting clear 3D images of fetal morphological structures can be used as a reference for early detection of embryo-fetal abnormalities.
Key words: Ultrasonography, 3D, goats, pregnancy
The purpose of this report is to describe and document the rare anatomical variation of the right phrenic nerve seen in a male donkey. During routine dissection, a deviation of Nervus phrenicus dexter was detected. The phrenic nerves – left and right, were found to pas more ventral and specially right nerve was dislocated from caval vein plica in additional pleural fold. The physiological changes or clinical complications that may occur as a result of nerve dislocation have been discussed.
Key words: Nervus phrenicus, donkey, variation, diaphragm paralisis.
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease characterized by destructive changes in articular cartilage and formation of new bone tissue – osteophytes. OA is the most common degenerative joint disease in humans and animals. OA affects the entire joint and is characterized by inflammation, remodeling of bones and progressive destruction of constitutive cartilage components.
The main purpose in the treatment of osteoarthritis is aimed at relieving pain, maintaining joint mobility, improving the quality of life of the patient, slowing down the development of degenerative changes. Over the last decades, on the basis of a number of studies, the beneficial effects of regenerative medicine in the treatment of injuries in all tissues in the body, in particular, the treatment of osteoarthritis, have been proven.The most commonly used regenerative therapies for the treatment of osteoarthritis are platelet-rich plasma (PRP), bone marrow (BM), and stem cells. These methods are obtained from the patient’s own blood or tissues. These therapies have an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, reparative and antidegenerative effect.
Key words: Platelets-Rich Plasma (PRP), bone marrow, stem cells, osteoarthritis, dog.
To investigate the therapeutic effect of whole bone marrow (WBM) in experimentally induced OA of the knee joint sheep.OA of the knee joint was inducted by removing of the medial meniscus of the joint. The first administration of 5 ml of autologous BM from the iliac crest was performed 12 weeks later; it was injected into the right knee. The second procedure was performed four weeks after the first one. The left knee joint was used as a control; 5 ml of saline solution was injected in it twice. The knee joints of both pelvic limbs were compared macroscopically and histologically; the dimensions of the lesions of the condyles of the femur, the amount and color of the synovial fluid and the degree of articular cartilage recovery were also examined.The lesions in the condyles of the right knee joint were significantly smaller in size than those in the control joint. The amount of synovial fluid in the right knee was slightly more than the one in the left knee.Injection of WBM in sheep with experimentally induced knee joint OA has a therapeutic effect.
Key words: Bone Marrow (BM), osteoarthritis (OA), treatment, sheep.