vol.4. N 1. 2019
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE GROWTH PROMOTER EFFECTIVENES FOR DIFFERENT DRUG FORMULATIONS, CONTAINING OREGANO OIL FOR BROILER CHICKENS
Ralitsa Bankova, Dimitrichka Dimitrova, Zaprianka Shindarska
A comparative study for broiler chickens using different drug formulations, containing oregano essential oil was added daily: Ecodiar® liquid 5% to the drinking water; Ecodiar® powder 5% and oregano oil 1% to the complete feedfrom the 1 to the last day of the finishing period (day 41). The experiment included 80 clinically healthy broiler chickens of the both sexes, 1-day old, hybrid Cobb-500, bred to the last day of the starter (n = 40) and bred to the last day of the finishing period (n = 40). In the dynamics (during the starter and finishing period), the indicatorswere determined: body weight, average daily gain, feed intake per capita/per day, energy and protein intake, feedefficiency, energy efficiency and crude protein efficiency per 1 kg gain, weight of thecarcass, liver, heart, gizzard, spleen and bursa of Fabricius. The our results showed thatin body weight gain and carcass, liver, spleen and heart weights of the broilerswithout statistically significant differences were observed compared to the control group during the starter and the finishing periods
In the gizzard weight of broilers that received Ecodiar® liquid 5% and Ecodiar® powder 5% with statistically significant differences were observed during the starter period, compared to the control group (p < 0.05). In weights of the bursa Fabricius in broilers that received Ecodiar® liquid 5% and 1% of oregano oil (p < 0.05) with statistically significant difference was observedduring the grower‐finisher period.
Key words: chickens, drug formulations, containing oregano oil, growth.
COMPARATIVE HEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE OF EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, TRICHINELLA BRITOVI AND TRICHINELLA PSEUDOSPIRALIS MICE
Valeria Dilcheva, Svetlozara Petkova, Ivelin Vladov
The study aimed to observed hematological changes occurring during experimentally induced infection with Trichinella spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis in mice. We performed hematological blood profile, tracking 15 blood indicators. In statistical analysis made by Two-way ANOVA, there were significant differences of HGB, MCHC, PLT, Lymph %, Gran % in all three types of trichinellosis compared to control animals. Capsule-forming T. spiralis showed statistically significant differences in HGB, MCHC, Lymph % and PLT compared to the other two species. Non capsule-forming T. pseudo-spiralis showed statistically significant differences in Lymph %, Gran % relative to the control and in Gran % relative to T. spiralis.
Key words: Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella britovi, Trichinella pseudospiralis, hematological test.
PATHOMORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES IN NEWBORN PIGS INDUCED BY INFECTION WITH VACCINAL STRAINS AND FIELD ISOLATES OF SUID HERPES VIRUS 1. PART II. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Comparative pathomorphological studies of newborn piglets prior to colostrum intake after infec-tion with a vaccine strain and two uterothropic strains of the Aujeszky’s disease strains – Mogila and Zagora II were performed. The studies were conducted with 21 large, well-developed piglets derived from an industrial pig farm, without antibodies to Suid herpesvirus 1. Histological, histochemical and electron microscopic studies have been performed. It was found that strains of the Aujeszky’s disease, which differ in virulence and tissue tropism, caused different severity, characteristic clinical signs and pathomorphologic changes in experimental animals. The clinical signs are related to changes in the respir-atory and digestive systems, bedsores and apathy. In the lungs of the pigs, infected with strain St. Zagora II and strain MK 35gE-, atelectatic and proliferative changes were observed. Serous – fibrinous pleuritis, fibrinogen necrotic pneumonia and the presence of inclusions type Cowdry A in the epithelial and con-nective tissue in lungs of the tested animals were inspected.
Key words: newborn pigs, respiratory system, Suid herpesvirus 1.
A FATAL MIXED BACTERIAL INFECTION IN GUINEA PIGS – CLINICAL SYMPTOMS, MICROBIOLOGY AND PATHOMORPHOLOGY – CASE REPORT
Katerina Todorovа, Iliya Peev, Kostadin Kanchev, Dimitar Ivanov, Rositsa Milcheva, Toni Todorov, Teodora Popova
The paper describes a case of an acute lethal infection in guinea pigs, demonstrated with watery to bloody profuse diarrhea, respiratory paralysis and death. Microbiological tests indentified several isolates: Clostridium novyi (oedematiens) (C. novyi), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Enterococcus sp. and Bacillus cereus (B. cereus). Materials from internal organs were obtained for pathohistological examination. Histo-ry data, microbiology and histopathology were evidential for toxin-forming pathogenic microorganisms, imported by food and/or probably turned to virulent endogenous bacterial strains, causing the death of the animals.
Key words: C. novyi, E. coli, Enterococcus sp., B. cereus, lethal infection, guinea pigs.
COMPARATIVE M-MODE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC STUDY OF MALE AND FEMALE DOGS WITH DEGENERATIVE MITRAL VALVE DISEASE (DMVD)
Via the M-mode echocardiographic study of dogs, without and with pulmonary edema, various statistically significant differences were obtained in dogs separated by gender and showed the different response of the myocardium to the volume loading of the male and female dogs with MVD.
Key words: dogs, male, female, myxomatous, pulmonary, edema.
TMVM, 2019, vol.4, No 1(6): 34–38
IN VITRO CELL GROWTH-INHIBITING AND IMMUNE MODULATING EFFECTS OF HEAT-SENSITIVE BIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES ISOLATED FROM PARASITE AND INFECTED HOST TISSUES AFTER EXPERIMENTAL TRICHINELLOSIS
Neli Tsocheva-Gaytandzhieva, Svetlozara Petkova, Elena Nikolova, Reneta Toshkova, Margarita Gabrashanska, Ivelin Vladov, Veselin Nanev, Valeria Dilcheva
Antiproliferative effects of biochemically isolated from Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae, livers and spleens from healthy and T. spiralis infected rats heat-sensitive bioactive substances (HSBSes) were studied in vitro on nonactivated and mitogen activated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) lymphocytes and bone marrow precursor cells. Stronger antiproliferative effects were established for HSBSes from parasite and infected host tissues than from healthy rats. Stronger growth inhibiting and immune modulating activ-ities of HSBSes were determined on PHA activated lymphocytes. Also antiproliferative effects were established on bone marrow precursor cells. This probably was a result of changed liver metabolism and immunity in T. spiralis infected hosts.
Key words: experimental trichinellosis, heat-sensitive bioactive substances, antiproliferative and immune modulating activities, lymphocytes, bone marrow cells,
Cases of co-infections due to the lungworm Aelurostrongylus abstrusus and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) in three cats are described. During 2017, 44 cats infected with FIV and 11 with A. abstrusus were presented to the Small Animal Clinic, Trakia University. And three of them were lethargic, anorexic and with pale mucous membranes, dyspnea, coughing and nasal discharge. No changes were observed in blood count. Parasitological and serological examinations were carried out. The larvae from the stool were identified as belonging to A. abstrusus and antibodies against FIV were detected as well. Radiographic findings included a generalized bronchointerstitioalveolar pattern and bronchial wall thickening. A proper medication with endectocide, antibiotics and fluids was prescribed. The effect of treatment was satisfactory and improvement of the general condition was observed.
Key words: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, lungworm, cats.
Anaplasmosis is a vector-borne zoonosis which affects different domestic and wild species, including humans. The available data for the distribution of the disease in stray dogs from different parts of Bulgaria is quite insufficient. The aim of the study is to introduce the results of the serological examination of 159 stray dogs from Sofia district for 2017. Thirty of them (18.87%) were positive for specific antibodies determined through chromatographic immunoassay. Forty percent of the positive dogs were accompanied by some hematological or biochemical alterations typical of anaplasmosis.
Key words: anaplasmosis, vector-borne diseases, zoonosis, canine.
The spread of a large number of domestic and stray dogs in recent years has made them the main patients of veterinary surgeons. Compared to other domestic animals, there are a large number of breeds in the dog with significant differences in size, anatomy and physiology. Traumatic, pathological and degenerative processes of the limbs often occur, where most patients the elbow and stifle joint are affected. In many cases, surgical interventions, operations and even endoprosthesis of these joints are necessary, so the main arteries and veins that provide the blood supply are of great importance. In the elbow region rete articulare cubiti is formed from branches of a. brachialis, while in the knee region rete articulare genus and rete patellare are formed, from branches predominantly of a. poplitea. Deep venous blood vessels resemble arterial, while the superficial venous net is significantly different and variable in the areas studied. The blood vessels of the thoracic limb are drained in v. cephalica and the vessels coming from the pelvic limb in v. saphena medialis and v. saphena lateralis. After reviewing the current literature there is evidence for a detailed and comprehensive study of the arteries and veins involved in the blood supply of the elbow and knee joint in the dog, which will be a reasonable basis for future anatomical, histological and imaging diagnostic studies on the blood vessels.
Key words: elbow and stifle joint, brachial and popliteal vessels, dog.
Knee joint OA was induced after removing half of the medial minuscule of the joint. For twelve weeks after the operation at 10 days interval, 5 ml of PRP was injected three times in the right knee joint. The left knee joint was used as a control, and 5 ml of saline was injected three times.
Six weeks after the last application of PRP, angiograms of the two knee joints were performed, using spiral computed tomography (CT). The study was performed transversally from the middle of the femur to the middle of the tibia of the respective limb. The slides were 1.5 mm wide at 2 mm intervals. The structural changes in the two knee joints were studied and compared, as well as the degree of angiogenesis and the degree of recovery of the articular cartilage. It was found that a. Saphena lateralis and medialis, and a. genus media are of the utmost importance, especially in ruminants, as they are responsible for the blood supply to the knee joints. The use of PRP in sheep with experimentally induced OA of the knee joint has been shown to induce the formation of an additional vascular system in treated knee joints.
Key words: bone marrow (BM), osteoarthritis (OA), knee joint, computer tomography (CT), angiography, sheep.
Regenerative medicine is one of the fastest-growing areas of human and veterinary medicine in restorative medicine, orthopedics and neurology. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and Bone marrow (BM) are one of the fastest growing regenerative methods for the treatment of various degenerative diseases of bones and soft tissues. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and Bone marrow (BM) are the sources of a number of growth factors and proteins that accelerate the regeneration of damaged tissues and thus make them applicable to acute and chronic traumas.
In modern regenerative medicine, there are numerous protocols for standardization and production of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and Bone marrow (BM). In this article, we review the different principles and methods for obtaining Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and Bone marrow (BM) based on available literature.
Key words: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), bone marrow (BM), principles, methods, preparation.
A study of fallow deer reared in enclosures at the „Eledjik“ hunting farm and free-range at the „Studen kladenets“ hunting farm was carried out. Both habitats are at different altitudes and the natural food base differs in terms of grassland, botanical composition and nutritional value. The study included an examination of blood samples from fallow deer’s from both habitats. The following biochemical indicators of the blood were examined: albumin, protein, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium. In order to determine the digestibility of the nutrients, samples were taken from the natural meadows and pastures found in the habitats as well as faecal samples tested for: moisture, protein, fat, raw ash and (mineral) and non-nitrogenous extracts. The results show differences between the studied indicators in the two habitats, which are probably due to the differences in the botanical composition of the grass in the natural habitats, as well as to the different composition of the ration used for supplementary feeding.
Key words: fallow deer, blood samples, free-range, reared in hunting enclosures
The purpose of this study is to examine the microcirculation section of the mammary glands in a dog. An euthanized dog’s cadaver was used with pre-cannulated a. subclavia and a. iliaca externa, through which an ink-gelatin solution is introduced. The samples were prepared by specific histological method. In the enlightened specimens are visualized the specific structure of arterial and venous sections of the circulatory system of the mammary glands, as well as the specific shaped capillary nets and arteriole-venular anastomoses. This method not only establishes the specific morphology of vascular formations, but also the possibility of proving regenerative, inflammatory and degenerative processes.
Key words: angiarchitectonics, capillary net, mammary gland, dog.
INITIAL DATA FOR THE VALUES OF THE ELECTROCARDIOGRAM ELEMENTS IN CLINICALLY HEALTHY OBESE CATS
We present statistically processed initial data on all elements of ECG and also for the electrical axis and the systolic index in clinically healthy cats with obesity. These values are compared to values obtained from clinically healthy cats with a normal body weight. The number of individuals from each group is, as follows: 6 cats with obesity and 21 cats with a normal body weight.
Key words: ECG, ECG diversion, ECG values, obesity, cats.