vol.3. N 2. 2018
EFFECT OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS INFECTION ON THE DYNAMICS OF CREATININE AND UREA CONCENTRATIONS IN THE BLOOD PLASMA OF RABBITS
T. Georgieva, I. Penchev, E. Vachkova, V. Petrov, M. Lyutskanov,Y. Petrova
The aim of this paper is to compare the dynamics of urea and creatinine, in rabbits that are infectedwith Staphylococcus aureus (experimental) and in control groups. Blood samples from each rabbit were takenas follows: at 3 months of age, coinciding with 0 hours before infection, and 6, 24, 48, 72 hours and on days7, 14, and 21 after S. aureus infection. The results showed significant decreasing between groups (P <0.05)of urea since 72 hours after infection to day 14. Significant increase in creatinine between groups was establishedon days 7 and 14 (P <0.01; P experiment in the experimental group.
Key words: Urea, creatinine, plasma, New Zealand rabbit
MYCOPLASMA HYOPNEUMONIAE INFECTIONS IN PIGS – MEASURES FOR CONTROL (REVIEW)
Control of swine enzootic pneumonia involves a wide range of measures including immunoprophylaxis, therapy and metaphylaxis. The article is dedicated to research in the field of therapy, control of the disease and prevention of bacterial resistance. An overview of antimicrobial therapy mentions the suitable drugs against M. hyopneumoniae, the optimal dosage regimes and routes of application. Types of vaccines, immunization strategies and some unfavorable factors that influence immunity to swine enzootic pneumonia are being described.
Key words: enzootic pneumonia, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, pigs, control
The great sensitivity of carnivorous animals to the Aujeszky’s disease virus makes them an indicator of the presence or absence of the causative agent on a farm. The massive spread of rodents and especially cats, from porcine industrial farms with reproductive disorders, is the reason to investigate the clinical manifestations and pathomorphological changes induced by the vaccine strain and two terrain uterotropic strains of the Aujeszky’s disease virus in dogs and cats. Kittens of 50–60 and dogs at 35–40 days of age were used. It was found that strain Mogila was highly virulent for dogs and cats, and the vaccine strain was more pathogenic for dogs and less pathogenic for cats. Cats had no itching. Pathohistological changes were localised in the nervous and respiratory system. They have the character of nonsuppurative encephalitis and interstitial pneumonia. In the lungs of cats, infected with strain Mogila, a fibrinous-necrotizing inflammatory response was observed.
Key words: dogs, cats, Aujeszky’s disease virus
PATHOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES IN NEWBORN PIGS INDUCED BY INFECTIONWITH VACCINAL STRAIN МК 35GE- AND FIELD ISOLATES MOGILA AND ST. ZAGORA OF SUID HERPESVIRUS 1. PART I. NERVOUS SYSTEM
The purpose of the present study was to perform a comparative morphological analysis of the changes in the central nervous system of new-born pigs prior to colostrum intake. The infection was artificially created by application of a vaccine strain MK 35gE- and two strains, isolated from intrauterine infection cases – Mogila and Stara Zagora II. A restriction profile of the viral strains was made. No neurological signs or 100% mortality were registered in the pigs that were infected with the strains St. Zagora II and MK 35gE-. Pathohistological changes caused by these two strains of the virus in animals CNS were similar and were characterized primarily by reproductive problems. The pathological changes induced by Mogila strain were obvious by presence of alteration, exudation, and proliferation (less pronounced) in the brain.
Key words: newborn pigs, CNS, Suid herpesvirus 1
Effects of zinc (Zn) – copper (Cu) hydroxochloride mixed crystals were tested on body weights, body weight gain, mortality, liver vitamins A, C, E, trace elements Zn and Cu and enzyme Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase. Investigated parameters were not changed significantly compared to controls in Zn-Cu hydroxochloride mixed crystals supplemented rabbits. Body weights and body weight gain were reduced, mortality was increased and liver biochemical parameters were decreased in F. hepatica infected animals. All affected parameters were increased near to controls after Zn-Cu hydroxochloride mixed crystals application in infected rabbits, so they may be used for restoration of disturbances from fasciolosis.
Key words: zinc-copper hydrochloride mixed crystals, fasciolosis
ELECTROCHEMICALLY ACTIVATED AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS – ESSENCE, ACTION AND SOME ASPECTS OF APPLICATION
Toshka Petrova, Teodora Popova
The main characteristic of the electrochemically activated aqueous solutions“ (ECAAS) is that if they are subjected to unipolar electrochemical influences with certain characteristics, in them occur metastable, i. g. electrochemically activated substances giving them unique ecological, chemical, physical, biological and, in particular, microbiological properties, which all the currently authorized chemicals (biocides, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals) do not possess. The anolyte and has reduced electron activity and pronounced oxidant properties, and the catholyte has enhanced electron activity and reductor properties.Because of their low oxidant content, the anolytes have very little chemical buffering, hence their environmental safety. The qualities of the ECAAS have provided grounds for their broad application both in the human and in the veterinary field, in the military field, the food industry, for the disinfection of ships, wagons, airplanes, etc. We conducted tests to determine the effect of an anolyte containing Cl– obtained by electrochemical activation of sterile distilled water with 3% NaCl on depleted sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, on bovine manure and on Clostridium perfringens. The results show that the anolyte added in equal proportion to the manure resulted in a reduction in the total number of microorganisms 20 times (2.6×105 CFU/ml) compared to the untreated control manure (7.5×106 CFU/ml), and upon addition of a doubly lesser amount of anolyte, the total number of microorganisms decreased 10 fold (4.5×105 CFU/ml) relative to the control. After 24 hours influence of anolyte on depleted sludge, there was a decreasing in the amount of microorganisms from all the groups studied. The decreasing was statistically significant in the total number of microorganisms and that of the Gram-negative aerobes in comparison with the untreated sludge, more significant in the sludge treated with equal quantity anolyte than that, treated with twice smaller amount of anolyte. The anolyte added in equal amounts to a suspension of C. perfringens at a density of 2.0×106 CFU/ml after 10 minutes of exposure, caused a three-fold decrease in the amount of viable cells in the suspension.
Key words: electrochemically activated aqueous solutions, antimicrobial action
EFFECT OF А PURIFIED SAPONINS’ MIXTURE FROM ASTRAGALUS GLYCYPHYLLOIDES, ADMINISTERED ALONE, ON ISOLATED RAT BRAIN SYNAPTOSOMES AND HEPATOCYTES
Georgi Popov, Magdalena Kondeva-Burdina, Vasil Manov, Aleksandar Shkondrov, Ilina Krasteva
Purified saponins’ mixture (PSM), obtained from Astragalus glycyphylloides (family Fabaceae) was examined for possible toxic effects on isolated rat brain synaptosomes and hepatocytes when administered alone. Synaptosomes and hepatocytes were incubated with PSM at three different concentrations: 60 µg/ml; 6 µg/ml; 0.6 µg/ml. The effects of PSM were compared to those of silymarin, in the same concentrations. The main parameters, characterizing functional and metabolic status of synaptosomes and hepatocytes were investigated: viability (by Trypan blue – for hepatocytes and MTT-test – for synaptosomes), lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH), level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and production of malondialdehyde (MDA). It was found that administered alone the PSM did not reveal any statistically significant toxic effects on both isolated rat brain synaptosomes and hepatocytes, compared to silymarin
Astragalus glycyphylloides, saponins’ mixture, synaptosomes, hepatocytes, toxicity
MORPHOFUNCTIONAL INVESTIGATION OF BROWN BEAR (URSUS ARCTUS) STOMACH
Emil Sapundzhiev, Mihail Chervenkov, Yanislav Iliev, Seven Mustafa, Maria Dimitrova
Histological investigation and functional comment of the brown bear stomach structure wall and its comparison with another carnivorous as dog, fox, wolf, jackal, cat and tiger, respectively which were surveyed previously was the aim of this study. The stomach of a female brown bear after sudden death was obtained and slides by conventional histological method were examined microscopically and morphometry was done. In mucosal layer of the brown bear stomach as in other investigated canine species the subglandular layer stratum compactum was not established also, as opposed to feline species in which stomach’s mucosa this specific collagenous layer was always presented.
Key words: stomach, histology, carnivorous, bear.
STUDY ON INTERNAL PARASITES IN SNAKES GROWN IN DOMESTIC CONDITIONS
Seven Mustafa, Radoslav Rafailov, Kostadin Kanchev, Constantinos Koureas, Maria-Ioanna Manioti
Parasitological study of domestic snakes is a diagnostic approach of great veterinary significance, as many of the internal diseases have similar clinical signs. With modifications of our known diagnostic methods, a number of internal non-infectious diseases can be differentiated from parasitoses or appropriate corrective measures can be identified in breeding conditions. Domestic snakes have been investigated, with some being found to contain oxirid eggs. A study on this finding was carried out and methods of investigation, parasitosis data and procedure for treatment were pre-sented, with commenting on the importance of oxyuridosis in serpents. It is necessary to emphasize the importance of a periodic prophylactic control of the parasitological status of domestic snakes as a preventive measure against diseases, which is of great importance for the breeders and the pet shops because there is a gathering of animals and an exchange of inventory.
Key words: snake, internal parasites, nematodes, oxyuriasis, pinworms
OUTBREAK OF INFLUENZA A VIRUS (H5N1) IN DALMATIAN PELICANS SREBARNA RESERVE, BULGARIA, 2015
Georgi Stoimenov, Gabriela Goujgoulova, Kalin Hristov, Atanaska Teneva
On March 25, 2015, a highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were isolated from the carcasses of a 3 Dalmatian pelicans (Pelecanus crispus) in Bulgaria. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and H5N1-specific real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) analysis showed, that the H5 and N1 avian influenza virus was presented in the lung, trachea, proventriculus, cloaca and brain tissue of the dalmatian pelicans. Subsequent sequence analysis found the following motif of basic amino acids at the cleavage site of hemagglutinin: PQRERRRKRGLF, which is characteristic of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of a part from segment 4 of A/dalmatian pelican/ Sreburna/Bulgaria/2015 (H5N1) showed a close genetic relationship with influenza viruses A (H5N1) clade 220.127.116.11. Тhe establishment of HPAI H5N1 in 2015, belonging to the genetic clade 18.104.22.168, circulating in Southeast Asia and in Bulgaria for the second time since 2010, shows the great potential for the trans-continental distribution of the virus and its ability to cause not only epizootic outbreaks, but also panzootic waves.
Key words: H5N1, Bulgaria, Dalmatian pelicans, Phylogenetic analysis
This study was aimed to evaluate content of heavy metals in Lepus europeas Pallas 1778 and its helminth Trichuris sylvilagi (Nematoda) in Kardzhali region, Bulgaria. The contents of Cd, Pb, Zn, Mo, Mn, and Co were determined in liver, kidney, muscle and helminths. A metal bioaccumulation factors were calculated. Significant differences in the concentrations were found between parasites and host tissues. The content of Zn, Pb and Cd was higher in the nematodes than in the hare tissues. The studied model could be a promising bioindication system to evaluate the ecological state in terrestrial habitats
Key words: Trichuris sylvilagi, hare, heavy metals.
RED AND WHITE BLOOD PROFILE IN RABBITS AFTER EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED INFECTION WITH SPORULATED OOCYSTS OF EIMERIA STIEDAE
Yoana Petrova, Teodora Georgieva, Dimitrinka Zapryanova, Andrey Ivanov, Petar Iliev, Ismet Kalkanov, Karapet Arabkercyan
The aim of this study was to identify changes in parameters of blood count in rabbits with experimentally induced liver coccidiosis. In the experiment were used 12 New Zealand White rabbits, divided into experimental and control groups, each consisting of 6 animals. The animals from experimental group were orally infected by 50 000 sporulated E. stiedae oocysts. Blood samples were drawn from all rabbits before (0 hour) and 6, 24, 48 hours, and also 7, 14, 21, 28 days after infection. There were established significant differ-ences (P<0.05) in the parameters of the blood count in the experimental group, compared to the control group.
Key words: Hematology, rabbits, Eimeria stiedae
In recent years, recorded cases of dirofilariasis in dogs have increased significantly in our country. The IDEXX 4Dx Snap test was positive for dirofilariasis. The operation was performed in a dog, male, mixed breed, 8 years of age, neutered. The worsened general condition of the animal, impaired cardiac activity, and elevated liver transaminases were a prerequisite for choosing the operative treatment of the animal. After access through v. jugularis from the heart were removed 9 adult forms of Dirofilaria immitis (5 females and 4 males). The postoperative period was without complications.
Кey words: surgical extraction, dirofilaria immitis, heartworm, dog.
A STUDY ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND BLOOD MINERALS IN LAMBS WITH EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HAEMONCHUS CONTORTUS INFECTION
Barash Murad, Petar Iliev, Petyo Prelezov, Zvezdelina Kirkova, Andrey Ivanov, Anton Tonev, Teodora Georgieva, Yoana Petrova
This study was focused on changes of some minerals and blood metabolites during experimentally in-duced H. contortus infection in lambs. A total of 12 animals were included in the study and were divided into experimental (n=6) and control (n=6) groups. The lambs from experimental group were orally inoculated with 4000 infective H. contortus larvae (L3) by placing a probe. Blood parameters (calcium, phosphorus, magne-sium, creatitine, glucose, total bilirubin, urea and alkaline phosphatase) were monitored on post infection days 0 and 21. The most pronounced changes occurred in urea and alkaline phosphatase levels, which increased significantly on day 21 (p<0.05) and reached values of 12.17±0.24 mmol/L and 334.17±32.3 U/L, respectively. The concentration of urea in experimental group was higher by 46.82% compared to control group. Alkaline phosphatase activity was also increased by 55.07% vs. control group. Mild changes occured in plasma concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, creatinine, glucose and total bilirubin but were not considered significant throughout the experiment.
Key words: Haemonchus contortus, lambs, blood minerals, biochemical parameters
It is examined the contents of lead, cadmium and nickel in the water of Kardzhali dam, as well as the bioaccumulation of the heavy metals in two organs – liver and muscles of Astacus leptodactylus. In tissue samples is reported increasing of cadmium in samples of liver. The bioaccumulation coefficient was calculated on the basis of the average content of lead, cadmium and nickel in the organs of Astacus leptodactylus. We recorded that the studied crayfish are macroconcentrators for cadmium.The analyzes have shown that lake crayfish to be defined as a biomarker in toxicity testing in contaminated waters.
Key words: heavy metals, Astacus leptodactylus, crayfish, bioaccumulation.
EFFECTS OF TOTAL INTRAVENOUS ANESTHESIA ON HEMATOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY VALUES DURING HEALT CHEK IN BROWN BEARS (URSUS ARCTOS)
Bogdan Aminkov, Nikolay Mehandzhiyski, Konstantin Aminkov, Ilia Peev
The present study was conducted to define the physiological responses of captive brown bears (Ursus arctos) immobilized by standardized total intravenous anesthesia protocol (TIVA), during routine health check. Hematology and biochemistry parameters (WBC, Lymph, Mon, Gran, Lymph%, Mon% Gran% RBC, HGB, HCT, PLT, ALT, AST, ALP, GLU, TP, ALB, UREA, CREAT, GLB) were evaluated in nine brown bears, anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia protocol for ninety minutes during the health check. The animals were kept in the „Park for Dancing Bears“ Belitza, Bulgaria. A standardized premedication protocol of tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl (Zoletil 100® Virbac, France) at 1 mg/kg, medetomidine HCl at 0.003 mg/kg (3 mcg/kg) and butorphanol tartrate at 0.05 mg/kg (50 mcg/kg) administered intramuscularly. Anesthesia was induced intravenously with a combined bolus of ketamine at 2 mg/kg and propofol at 2 mg/kg, and maintained with a constant rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine at 0.8 mg/kg/h and propofol 0.04 at mg/kg/min. Overall results compared to baseline levels did not present statistically significant changes, to the exception of PLT, GLU, and CREAT. In conclusion, the research anesthetic protocol is an inexpensive and relatively safe method for various manipulations and procedures in the brown bear.
Key words: Ursus arctos, TIVA, Hematology, biochemistry.
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 on pancreas morphology. Also, the possibility for prevention of toxic effects of AFB1 by feed supplementation of a mycosorbent (Mycotox NB) was studied. Experiments were carried out with 60 7-day-old female turkey broilers (meat TM strain) divided into one control and five treatment groups (n=10): Group I – control (0 mg/kg AFB1 not supplemented with Mycotox NG); Group II (0.5 g/kg Mycotox NG), Group III (0.2 mg/kg AFB1), Group IV (0.4 mg/kg AFB1), Group V (0.2 mg/kg AFB1 and 0.5 g/kg Mycotox NG) and Group VI (0.4 mg/kg AFB1and 0.5 g/kg Mycotox NG). The duration of the experiments was 42 days. Histopathologically, the pancreatic changes in turkey broilers treated at 0.2 mg/kg AFB1 comprised generalised vascular hyperaemia, interlobular oedema, initial disorganisation and disintegration of glandular acini. Birds treated at 0.4 mg/kgAFB1 exhibited complete glandular acini disorganisation, haemorrhages mononuclear cell infiltrations as well as necrobiotic changes. The supplementation of the feed of groups V and VI with the tested toxin binder reduced the severity and frequency of observed histological lesions (slight interlobular oedema, the disintegration of acinar cells was insignificant and initial granular dystrophy of the cytoplasm of Langerhans islet cells).
Key words: aflatoxin В1, pancreatic lesions, Mycotox NG, turkey broilers.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF THE MAMMARY GLAND IN LACTATING COWS
Ivan Fasulkov, Manol Karadaev, Nasko Vasilev, Martin Nikolov, Tsvetelin Nonov
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of visualization and characterization of the mammary glands structures in lactating cows through 3D ultrasonography. Ten Black-and-white cows, 5 years of age, weighing 380–450 kg, were included in the experiment. The cows were reared in the cattle barn of the Experimental Farm of the Trakia University – Stara Zagora. The animals were in third lactation, between the 2nd and 4th months of lactation. Ultrasound examinations of the mammary gland was made through transcutaneous approach with linear transducer at a frequency of 10.0 MHz. The 3D sonography at the top of the teat was characterized by a clear visualization of the morphological structures papillary orifice, teat canal and rosette of Furstenberg. Above them, in the three-dimensional image were differentiated three-layer construction of the teat wall, as well as milk in the teat cistern. At the boundary between teat and gland cistern of the mammary gland, as clear rounded structures in 3D images were visualized vessels of the Furst-enberg’s venous ring. When examining the body of the udder, three-dimensional ultrasonography allowed characterization of lactiferous ducts in gland cistern and normal mammary parenchyma. Our results indicate that 3D ultrasonography of the mammary gland in dairy cows allows detailed imaging of the morphological structures located therein. This will lead to more accurate diagnosis and prognosis in cases of pathological changes localized in teat and mammary parenchyma of the udder.
Key words: Ultrasonography, 3D, mammary gland, cows.
A CLINICAL CASE OF PNEUMONIA INDUCED SEPSIS
Iliyan Manev, Victoria Marincheva, Krasimira Genova, Petar Stamberov
The aim of this case report is to present the dynamics of clinical manifestation and treatment of a dog with pneumonia induced sepsis. The patient was with hypothermia, dehydration, dyspnea and signs of disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome. The laboratory findings included marked leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia and prerenal azotemia. Intense fluid and combined antibiotic therapy was introduced which resulted in a favorable outcome.
Key words: sepsis, pneumonia, dog.
The role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a promoter of bone union remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on non-union femur fracture in a dog. This is a case of a 3 year old mongrel dog with femur fracture. Following unsuccessful treatment of the fracture with dynamic compression plate and external bone fixation, PRP was injected through the skin three times every 10 days in the region of the fracture line. One month after the last injection, there was union between the bone fragments. The administration of PRP in the event of unsuccessful union between bone fragments stimulates bone union.
Key words: dog, bone non-union, platelet-rich plasma.