vol.3. N 1. 2018
RADIOGRAPHIC FINDINGS IN JOINT DISEASE IN THREE BROWN BEARS
Bogdan Aminkov, Petar Nanev, Konstantin Aminkov
Radiographic examinations were performed on the hip, knee and elbow joints of three brown bears. The study was conducted in the Dancing Bear Park, in the town of Belitsa, Bulgaria. All tested bears were limping and had abnormal gait. All X-rays indicated osteoarthritis and degenerative changes. A correlation between the X-ray findings and the level of lameness was established.
Key words: osteoarthritis, X-ray examination, lameness, joint, hip, bear
LUNG PATTERNS IN THE DOG – NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL
Kalin Spasov, Michaela Kunovska, Dimo Dimov
The purpose of this article is to describe common principles of the radiological survey of the lungs, whichis crucial for the making of correct and timely diagnosis in the clinical settings. The main lung patterns- alveolar, bronchial, interstitial and vascular are shown in details and their clinical value in different inflammatory, neoplastic and cardiac pathologies are reviewed. The different lung patterns are described using variety of radiologic imaging, which are supposed to demonstrate the principle difference between the common patterns and the descriptive differentiation of the pathology from the physiology.
Key words: radiology, lung, pattern, dog.
CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM IN PEAT LITTER – CAUSE OF DEADLY DISSEASE IN REPTILES IN PRIVATE TERRARIUM
Teodora Popova, Vasil Manov
Materials from 6 months old snakes of the species shooter snake (Coluber caspius), died with neurological symptoms and uncharacteristic eating of peat litter, were tested. At the microscopic examination of samples of liver and peat litter were found bacteria with morphology, typical of Clostridium botulinum, then this species was isolated from studied materials. The сlinical, pathological and microbiological results show that the mostlikely cause of these symptoms and mortality was botulinum intoxication. To prevent the disease, the peat andother bedding for reptiles should not be kept in wet and anaerobic conditions.
Key words: reptiles, peat, Clostridium botulinum
ATYPICAL MYCOSIS IN WILD BOARS
Teodora Popova, Ivan Todev
From skin of wild boars with signs of dermatitis were isolated fungi of species Penicillium verrucosum (Dierckx, 1901), and Aspergillus fumigatus (Fresen, 1863). Pathologically were stablished hepatitis and nephritis. A. fumigatus was isolated from the liver, but from the kidneys were not isolated microorganisms. The results indicate that A. fumigatus can be fungal pathogen in wild pigs with localization in the liver and in combination with P. verrucosum – of dermatomycosis. Both types of fungi are not typical causes of skin mycoses and this is the first case of isolation in such disease.
Key words: Penicillium verrucosum, Aspergillus fumigatus, dermatomycosis, wild boar
INVASION OF BEE SAMPLES WITH VARROA DESTRUCTOR
Delka Salkova, Kalinka Gurgulova, Ilian Georgiev
The aim of this work was to estimate the level of infestation of bee samples infested with Varroa destructor. It has been performed a laboratory assay of bee samples for the presence of the mite Varroa destructor. The investigation was for a period of two years – 2015 and 2016. The bee samples were collected from diseased and dead bee colonies owned by 149 beekeepers. The result showеd that from 220 bee samples tested, 36% were positive for Varroa mite and negative samples were 64%. The level of infestation in positive samples wasas follows: less than 5% were in 39.2% of samples, between 5 to 20% and more than 20% were found in 30.4%for each level, respectively. In conclusion more than a third of the bee samples were infested with Varroa mites. Most of the bee samples had a low degree of invasion (< 5%) and the average and the high level of invasion of bee samples were represented by the same values.
Key words: Apis mellifera, bee sample, Varroa destructor, laboratory assay.
SUBCLINICAL AND CLINICAL KETOSIS IN SHEEP – RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BODY CONDITION SCORES AND BLOOD β-HYDROXYBUTYRATE AND NON-ESTERIFIED FATTY ACIDS CONCENTRATIONS
Vania Marutsova, Plamen Marutsov
The study included a total of 136 sheep from two breeds (Lacaune and Mouton Charollais) to establish changes in the values of body condition score (BCS), β-hydroxybutyrate (ВНВА) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in their blood and their relationship in the development of subclinical (SCK) and clinical (CK) ketosis. The ewes were divided in three groups (pregnant, recently lambed and lactating). Blood concentrations of ВНВА and NEFA were assayed in all ewes. The body condition was scored. Blood ВНВА concentrations were increased in Lacaune sheep from the three groups affected by SCK vs control levels, as well as in animals with CK from all groups vs both controls and SCK. None of Mouton Charollais ewes had blood BHBA concentrations >0.8 mmol/l. The evaluation of BCS of ewes with SCK and CK showed a trend of decrease compared to the control groups. The quantities of NEFA in sheep of the three groups with SCK were statistically significantly elevated vs control groups, while in sheep with CK – decreased, vs both controls and SCK. In meat-type Mouton Charollais ewes, values of NEFA ranged around the reference.
Key words: ketosis, BCS, ВНВА, NEFA, ewes
The purpose of this study was to be made a review of the appropriate anesthetic agents, methods and schemes for sedation, analgesia and anesthesia in snakes, which could help veterinary doctors to perform safer clinical examination or painless invasive procedures with a minimal stress for the patient.
TRADITION AND CONTEMPORATION IN THE PRODUCTION OF CRUDE DRIED MEAT PRODUCTS
Valentin Nikolov, Stanislav Radanski
Production of traditional raw – dried meat products in Bulgaria is a historical fact that is increasingly fades into the background of innovative technologies that massively enter the meat industry. That’s besides the massive high-tech production and European framework which imposes certain standards in the production of this type of meat products. However, they remain favorites in the local market as it is considered a traditional food for the region. As foods with protected designations and traditional specialties guaranteed in the Europeanregister were entered Elena fillet, sausage Panagyurska, Rolle Trapezitza and Kaiser neck Thrace. Studies overthe hygiene status and quality characteristics of various assortments of raw dried meat products are diverse and indicate possible problems arising from the specificity of the products and the continuous development of technology.
This study examines the quality of meat raw materials, the role of microflora in meat available and the impact of the added starter cultures in the production of fast ripening raw dried meat products as a key factorin maintaining the identity and authority of traditional Bulgarian food.
Key words: dried meat products; quality characteristics.
ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF CRITICAL SMALL ANIMAL PATIENTS WITH TRAUMATIC DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA AND GASTRIC DILATATION/VOLVULUS SYNDROME – A REVIEW
Alexandros Frikis, Nadya Zlateva
Successful anesthetic management of critical patients requires usage of specific anesthetic protocols depending on the animals’ condition, degree of emergence, available equipment, knowledge of doctors etc. Correctly preoperative evaluation, intraoperative monitoring and postoperative monitoring and pain management are the important steps for decreasing of mortality during these conditions.
The aim of this article was to review procedures regarding Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus syndrome (GDV) and Traumatic Diaphragmatic Hernia (TDH), two common emergency situations in small animal practice, which share high mortality rates and the need of specific and cautious anesthetic considerations.
Key words: Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus syndrome (GDV), Traumatic Diaphragmatic Hernia (TDH), anesthesia, dog, cat
CANINE IMMUNE-MEDIATED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA – BRIEF REVIEW
Iliyan Manev, Victoria Marincheva
Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA) is a common autoimmune disorder in dogs. It affects both sexes but occurs more often in female, middle-aged animals. IMHA can be idiopathic (primary) or secondary to infectious, neoplastic and autoimmune disorders. There is an acute regenerative anemia with accompany in ghypoxia. Destruction of erythrocytes can be intravascular (as a result of complement system activation) or extravascular (removal of antibody-coated red blood cells by the macrophages in the liver and spleen). Diagnosisis based on the presence of anemia, in vitro autoagglutination, positive direct antiglobulin test (Coomb`stest), detection of spherocytes. It is crucial to exclude possible secondary causes. The treatment protocol aims to cause cell destruction by high doses of corticosteroids, aggressive supportive care and long-term application of immunosuppressive drug combinations. Still lethality is high because of complications (pulmonary thromboembolism, DIC), medication resistance, relapses.
Key words: immune-mediated, anemia, canine, hemolysis, immunosuppressive drugs.
IMMUNE-MEDIATED HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA IN A DOG – A CLINICAL CASE
Iliyan Manev, Victoria Marincheva, Petar Stamberov
The article describes a case of Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia in a dog. There is a description of the dynamic of the disease before and after the beginning of treatment with immunosuppressive drugs (Prednisoloneand Azathioprine). The laboratory study shows significant improvement, the patient has no clinical complaints. There is a discussion for the approach to such clinical presentation and the application of a successful therapeutic strategy.
Key words: immune-mediated, hemolytic anemia, immunosuppressive drugs.
COMPARISON OF hCG VS GnRH EFFECTS IN DOUBLE OVSYNCH ON FIRST-SERVICE CONCEPTION RATES IN ANESTRUS DAIRY COWS
Gundars Naglis, Ivan Fasulkov, Manol Karadaev, Radina Vasileva, Georgios Petrovas, Nasko Vasilev
The aim of the present study was to compare first-service conception rates after inclusion of either hCG or GnRH in Double Ovsynch to anestrous dairy cows. The animals with follicle size ≥10 mm and no corpus luteum in ovaries were allotted into 2 groups. At the start of the programme, follicle sizes were 13.7 ± 1.5 mm and 13.9 ± 1.2 mm respectively (р=0.5). Higher percentage of ovulations (72.7%) were established in cows treated with hCG vs those treated with GnRH (64.4%, р<0.2094). Follicle sizes at the time of AI were 15.9±0.5 mm and 16.2 ± 0.4 mm (р=0.5). Pregnancy was detected in 38.6% of cows treated with hCG and 42.2% of cows treated with GnRH (р<0.3501).
Key words: anestrus, dairy cows, double Ovsynch
PREGNANCY IN THE BITCH – A PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITION REQUIRING SPECIFIC CARE (Review)
Cvetelina Ivanova, Plamen Georgiev
The physiology of canine pregnancy is characterised with specific features affecting the function of all organs and systems. The last third of pregnancy, when foetal development and growth are the most intensive, is particularly important. After the conception, the animals need not only extra care from their owners, but also veterinary medical monitoring of the bitch and foetuses for prevention or timely diagnosis of illnesses. The present review is focused on nutrition, antiparasitic treatment and vaccination of the pregnant bitch. Practical algorithms for prophylaxis and therapy are proposed. A special emphasis is placed on the role of these procedures on pregnancy course and maintaining, dam health and the vitality of neonates.
Кey words: canine pregnancy, nutrition, prophylactic treatments
FAILURE TO TAKE SUFFICIENT CARE AND CONTROL OF VERTEBRATES – ADMINISTRATIVE VIOLATION OR CRIME
Silvia Kirova, Veselin Kirov, Gergana Nikolova, Iliyan Kostov
Owners and persons supervising animals are obliged to take adequate and enough care for them and to control their behaviour. This obligation is explicitly governed by the provisions of article 149, article 150 and article 177 of the Veterinary Medicine Act (VMA). Any failure to take due care, i.e. owners’ omission, may result in damages both to animals and the other members of the society. The liability of the owners and the persons supervising the animals may be criminal in case the hypotheses of article 325c of the Criminal Code exist,or administrative – criminal in case with their omission, respon-sible individuals have violated only the requirements of the veterinary medical legislation.
This study highlights the need to differentiate cases where the responsible individuals’ failure to take enough care for the animals is only an administrative violation, and cases where this is a crime, and what are the competent government authorities that impose sanctions to the violator. The judgment of this circumstance is crucial with view of the prohibition to sue a violator twice for the same, also used as a basis for the interpretation in Interpreting Decision No 3 enacted on 22.12.2015 under interpreting case No 3/2015 as per the inventory of the General Assembly of the Criminal Bar at the Supreme Court of Cassation.
Key words: vertebrate, medium level of bodily injury, severe bodily injury, administrative violation,crime.
AELUROSTRONGYLUS ABSTRUSUS IN CATS – DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
Boris Borisov, Radoslav Rafailov, Dimitar Hadzhimitev, Georgi Marinov, Nadya Zlateva, Evdoxia Magkrioti
There are a significant number of parasites in which part of their life cycle passes through the lung or adult forms can be found there. Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Strongylida, Angiostrongylidae) is one of the so-called lungworm parasites, and in recent years has gained considerable prevalence in our country. Its location is usually in bronchioles and alveoli and the disease may occur asymptomatically or with cough, breathing disturbances and worsening of the general condition.
For a period of 1 year, 60 coprological samples were made in the clinic, six of which were positive for Aelurostrongylus abstrusus as a single invasion or as a co-invasion with other parasites.The specific treatment performed has led to animal healing.
Key words: cats, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, lung parasites