vol.2. N 2. 2017
APPLICABILITY OF ASSISTED REPRODUCTION TECHNIQUES INCONTEMPORARY SMALL RUMINANT FARMING
T. Dovenski, V. Petkov, F. Popovska-Percinic, B. Atanasov, K. Ilievska, M. Nikolovski, M. Dovenska, P. Trojacanec, S. Vince, J. Grizelj
Sheep and goat breeding has long tradition in the Balkan countries, making it leading trade in animalhusbandry. Dynamic changes in global agriculture production from traditional to industrial livestock technologies,has also impacted the small ruminant farming systems. The reproduction management is considered tobe a crucial point for good farming practice among other animal husbandry factors (housing, nutrition, selection,healthcare, etc.). In the last few decades, our sheep and goat farming systems have introduced variousassisted reproduction techniques, such as estrous and ovulation synchronization, laparoscopic intrauterineinsemination, embryo production (MOET and IVF), semen cryoconservation, photoperiod manipulation etc.This article reviews the current novelties in this field, presenting worldwide scientific reports and our personalexperiences in research and translation to everyday farm practice.Ovine and caprine species have been considered as typical seasonal breeders, becoming sexually activeas result of pineal gland and day-length alterations in late summer/early autumn. Lambing/kidding and milkproduction follow established seasonal patterns. In order for farmers to yield these productive traits in variousseasons of the year, they are able to use different hormonal combination of progestagens, prostaglandins,exogenous gonadotropins (eCG) or “natural” methods: light control or exposure to a male after period ofisolation (“ram/buck effect”). The hormonal treatment by vaginal sponges is applicable throughout the year,resulting in pregnancy and higher lambing rates compared to seasonal breeding (see review Dovenski andGvozdic 2012).The implementation of most recent Artificial Insemination techniques in small ruminants, suggests thatthe transcervical insemination success rates could be improved by intracornual deposition of semen (laparoscopy),bypassing the “cervical barrier”. Our results indicate high pregnancy rates could be obtained by IntrauterineLaparascopic Insemination in sheep (45% out of season, 60% during the breeding season) and evenhigher in goats 70-80% (Dovenski at al. 2012). Some attempts for pharmacological relaxation of uterine cervixin sheep with unsatisfactory success have been also reported by Candappa et al (2009).Survival rate of buck’s spermatozoa has been dramatically improved by using the “egg-yolk free” extenders,based of soya lecithin as cryoprotectant. Conversely, ram semen cryopreservation did not make substantialprogress in past decades, despite the great research work in testing of novel media supplemented byvarious antioxidants (oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, cysteine), and the peculiar in-vivo trialswhich has shown optimistic results.
Key words: assisted reproduction, sheep, goats, artificial insemination, estrous synchronization.
PHARMACOKINETICS OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN PIGS AFTER SINGLEINTRAVENOUS AND INTRAMUSCULAR ADMINISTRATION
Dimitrichka Dimitrova, Sofiya Ivanova, Metodi Petrichev
The pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in pigs after single intravenous or intramuscular application wasfollowed out. Blood concentrations were assayed using HPLC with UV-detection. By means of the TopFit,v. 2.0. software, the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by two pharmacokinetic models – compartmentaland non-compartmental.After i.v. application, the respective values of calculated pharmacokinetic parameters were as followed:t1/2α = 0.54 h; t1/2β = 5.92 h and t1/2β = 5.76 h; MRT = 8.74 h and MRT = 8.41h; AUC0→∞= 23.14 µg.h/ml andAUC 0®¥= 22.24 µg.h/ml; Vss= 4.87 l/kg and Vd(area) = 5.14 l/kg.After i.m. application of ciprofloxacin, the respective values of calculated pharmacokinetic parameterswere as followed: t1/2α = 0.46 h; t1/2β = 4.83 h and t1/2β = 4.61 h; MRT = 9.89 h and MRT = 9.68 h; t1/2abs. = 0.56h; MAT = 1.15 h and MAT = 1.12 h; Cmax = 0.714 µg/ml and Cmax = 0.625 µg/ml; Tmax= 0.76 h and Tmax= 0.88h; AUC0®¥ = 17.630 µg.h/ml and AUC0®¥ = 16.835 µg.h/ml; F = 76.23% and F = 75.69%.
Key words: ciprofloxacin, pharmacokinetics, pigs.
COINFECTION OF CHICKEN ANAEMIA VIRUS, MYCOPLASMA GALLISEPTICUM, AVIAN METAPNEUMOVIRUS AND AVIAN REOVIRUS IN FANCY CHICKEN BREEDS
Mariya Hristova, Reneta Petrova
In this report, a case of concomitant Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and Avian reovirus (ARV) infection in fancy chicken breeds is presented. It concerns fancy chickens at the age from 2 weeks to 4 months with repetitive respiratory symptoms such as difficulty breathing, whistling sounds and conjunctivitis. The 5 chickens submitted at the Institute were with depression, rales and dyspnea as 2 of them had anaemia. The necropsy was performed after their humane euthanasia. The 2 older necropsed birds showed fibrinous airsacculitis with gathering caseous exudate and serous tracheitis. The air sacs of the younger chickens were with initial signs of opacity. Atrophy of the thymus was found in one of the examined chickens with anaemia. The 5 serum samples tested by rapid serum agglutination test with MG antigen, were positive for MG. CAV was confirmed in the five fancy chickens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in the both chickens with anaemia histologically. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) determined the presence of antibodies to aMPV and ARV in the five tested birds. This study is a case of confirming co-infection of CAV with MG, aMPV and ARV.
Key words: chicken anaemia virus, mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian metapneumovirus, avian reovirus, co-infection, fancy chicken breeds
INFLUENCE OF SALT SUPPLEMENTATION – SALT EXCLUSION DIET ON ESTRUS INDUCTION IN NORTH-EAST BULGARIAN MERINO SHEEP
Madlena Andreeva, Georgi Anev, Paulina Taushanova, Boyko Georgiev, Rossen Stefanov
The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of salt supplementation – salt exclusion (SSE) diet on estrus induction in North-East Bulgarian merino sheep (NBMS). It was used three groups consisting of 180 animals each, where one serves as control and two were experimental. The control group was allowed to consume salt ad libitum, while the experimental groups had no access to salt for 10 days, after which their diet was supplemented with 17g/per capita for 6 days. During the experiment, teaser rams were used to reveal the animals which are in estrus. It was found that SSE diet doesn’t stimulate the estrus onset in the sheep from NBMS.
Key words: sheep breeds, estrus, salt supplementation – salt exclusion diet.
HEMATOLOGICAL AND BLOOD-BIOCHEMISTRY PARAMETERS OF GUINEA FOWLS IN EARLY STAGE OF NITROSODIETHYLAMINE INDUCED HEPATOCARCINOGENESIS
Branimir Nikolov, Vasil Manov, Roman Pepovich, Tanzhu Mehmedov, Kalin Hristov, Krasimira Genova, Elena Nikolova, Reneta Petrova, Ani Georgieva, Anton Kril
In ovo models (avian embryos) are a novel alternative to laboratory animals used in the experimental cancer research. In the present study, the preneoplastic liver lesions induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine in guinea fowls were examined by histopatological methods. The alterations of some hematological and biochemical parameters were examined in guinea fowls hatched from carcinogen-inoculated eggs. Histopathology confirmed the presence of basophilic and eosinophilic foci of altered hepatocytes, strongly resembling the morphology of the preneoplastic lesions previously found in other avian species and laboratory rodents treated with the same carcinogen, as well as in humans with hepatocellular carcinomas. In addition to the focal hepatic lesions, pronounced hyperplasia of cholangiocytes and spongiosis hepatis were also detected in treated guinea fowls. The established alterations of hematological and biochemical parameters included thrombocytopenia and an increase of the levels of major liver enzymes and were related to the hepatocarcinogenesis. In addition, changes in the leukogram (leukocytosis, lymphocytosis and granulocytosis), as well as hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia and hypoglycemia were observed.
Key words: in ovo tests, guinea fowl, hepatocarcinogenesis, N-nitrosodiethylamine, hematological and biochemical parameters.
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE GEL CONTAINING CHELATED COPPER AND ZINC FOR TREATING DIGITAL DERMATITIS IN DAIRY COWS
The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of topical treatment of copper and zinc chelates to cure digital dermatitis (DD) in dairy cows. The study was conducted between December 2016 and Februari 2017 and involved 38 dairy cows from a dairy farm on which DD was endemic. Lesions were scored in the milking parlor on both hind feet using M0 to M4 scoring system using Relun’s method with a headlamp and a mirror on a spatula. The cows were divided into two experimental groups and one control group. Group 1 received topical treatment with gel containing cooper and zinc, on the zero, second and fifth days with bandaging. Group 2 received the same treatment without bandaging. Control group was used to assess the possible effects of surgical debridement and bandaging. The percentage of the lesions recovered from DD in experimental groups was 86.4% and 46.1%. In control group the percentage of the recovered animals was 16.7%. The cure rate of gel containing chelated copper and zinc and bandaging is an excellent option to treat DD.
Key words: digital dermatitis, copper and zinc gel, dairy cows.
CLINICAL AND HEMATOLOGICAL STUDIES IN SHEEP WITH SUBCLINICAL AND CLINICAL KETOSIS
Vania Marutsova, Plamen Marutsov
The investigation was performed on 136 ewes, 106 (Lacaune) and 30 (Mouton Charollais). The ewes were divided in three groups: pregnant; recently lambed and lactating. Sheep of the three groups, we performed a chemical blood test to determine the level of β-hydroxybutyrate. Clinical examination was performed on all animals by routine methods of clinical diagnostics. In haematological studies were monitored parameters of red and white blood count. The investigation of the sheep from the three groups with subclinical ketosis (SCK) showed that clinical parameters varied within the reference ranges. The studied red and white blood cell indices in Lacaune sheep with SCK and clinical ketosis (CK) indicated erythropenia, oligochromemia, reduced haematocrit, leucocytosis and lymphocytosis. The meat breed Mouton Charollais did not exhibit any changes in studied haematological parameters. The sheep from the dairy breed Lacaune were affected with SCK and CK during the pregnancy, parturition and lactation while those from the meat breed Mouton Charollais did not suffer.
Key words: ketosis, β-hydroxybutyrate, clinical and hematological parameters, ewes.
LEVELS OF LEAD IN TISSUES OF MALLARDS (Anas platyrhynchos, L) EXPERMENTALLY EXPOSED TO SHOT PELLETS
Petar Stamberov, Toni Todorov, Sofiya Ivanova, Marin Alexandrov, Kalin Hristov, Tandzhu Mehmedov, Iliyan Manev, Ella Taneva
The paper presents for determination of lead in the liver, kidney, breast muscles and humerus of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos, L), treated orally with lead shot pellets. The results obtained show significant elevation tissue concentrations of lead in relation to the control values. The highest values were established in the humerus, followed by the kidneys, liver and breast muscles.
Key words: mallards, lead, hunting pellets, tissues, toxicological analysis
INFLUENCE OF CALCAREA CARBONICA 30C ON WEIGHT ANDTHICKNESS OF EGG SHELL AND INDEX OF EGG SHAPE IN DOMESTICOSTRICHES (STRUTHIO CAMELUS DOMESTICUS)
Influence of Calcarea carbonica 30c on weight and thickness of egg shell and index of egg shape indomestic ostriches (Struthio camelus domesticus) during the first and second egg-productivity years was investigated.Only according to the index of egg shape remedy has done some work; weight as well as thickness ofegg shell did not increase statistical significance between treated and untreated animals, and values of coefficientof variation of the index of egg shape was lower in comparison with the control group.
Key words: ostriches, homeopathy, egg shell, egg index
INFLUENCE OF MELATONIN TREATMENT ON PUBERTY ONSET INBUFFALO HEIFERS FROM BULGARIAN MURRAH BREED
Vladimir Planski, Stanimir Yotov, Parvan Parvanov, Manol Karadaev,Yordanka Ilieva, Kalin Hristov, Dimiter Dimitrov
Current study aimed to investigate the influence of melatonin treatment on puberty onset in buffalo heifersfrom Bulgarian Murrah breed. The experiment was carried out with еleven clinically healthy pre-pubertalBulgarian Murrah buffalo heifers alloted in two groups – control (non treated, n=6) and experimental (melatonin–treated, n=5). According to used plan, the treatment was done three time by subcutaneous melatonin implant,containing 18 mg melatonin. Seven days after the last melatonin treatment, progesterone levels weremeasured by ELISA method and used as an indicator for a presence of cyclic ovarian activity. Data were processedusing of a computer statistical program. The average age (12.7±1.1 months and 13.2±0.9 months), bodyweights (184±22 kg and 232±33 kg) and progesterone levels (0.94±0.37 ng/ml and 1.08±0.16 ng/ml) amongthe groups did not differ considerably. However, the minimal and the maximal progesterone values in the experimentalgroup (0.96 ng/ml до 1.36 ng/ml) were indicative for a presence of cyclic ovarian activity in 100%of the animals versus 80% in the control group. The concluded analysis shows that melatonin implants applicationis connected with a trend for earlier induction of cyclic ovarian activity and hastening of a puberty onsetin Bulgarian Murrah buffalo heifers.
Key words: buffalo, melatonin, puberty, sexual cycle.
COMPARATIVE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC STUDIES OF DOGS WITHMIXOMATOUS DEGENERATION OF THE MITRAL VALVE, DEPENDENTON THE PRESENCE OR ABSENCE OF PULMONARY EDEMA,CONSECUTIVELY INDEXED BY THE LINEAR AND WEIGHT IDEALIZINGAORTIC SIZE
Echocardiographic dimensions of 20 dogs with myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve were comparedin this paper. The patients were decided into two groups depending on the presence or absence of pulmonaryedema. ERIs were obtained after consecutive indexing of Aom and Aow. In the indexing of Aom wereceived significant differences for aLA***, aLVODd** and aΔA**. In the indexing of Aow we received significantdifferences for more ERIs (wLA***, wLVODd**, wLVODs*, wΔA** and wWAd*).
Key words: dogs, mitral, mixomatous, degeneration, echocardiographic.
HISTOLOGICAL STRUCTURE OF THE GREY WOLF (CANIS LUPUS) STOMACH
Emil Sapundzhiev, Petko Zahariev, Stoyan Stoyanov
The aim of the current study was to investigate the microscopic anatomy structure of the grey wolf stomach wall and to compare it with another carnivorous as dog, fox, jackal, cat and tiger, respectively which were surveyed previously. The stomach of 2 male grey wolfs obtained after unplanned hunting, were investigated microscopically. The observation and morphometry was done by using „Olympus“ microscopic computer system. The mucous membrane of the grey wolf stomach wall contains the typical tubular glands in different anatomical regions of the stomach and a chief, parietal and mucous exocrinocytic cells are presented. But no signs of the layer stratum compactum belt-like collagen formation was observed in wolf stomach mucosa. In layer tela submucosa well developed network of myotypical arterial and venous blood vessels are observed. The muscle layer of the wall is proportionally developed from three-positional situated smooth muscle cells bundles and an autonomic intramural myenteric nervous plexus is found between. The most outer layer serosa is morphologically presented and it enveloped the organ. Dismissing the layer stratum compactum in grey wolf stomachs is similar fact as another canine animal species like dog, fox and jackal but it differs in cat and tiger where it was demonstrated. This fact supports the hypothesis that the mucosal layer stratum compactum may not to be presented in animals belonging to Canidae family carnivores but usually exists in Felidae animals.
Key words: carnivorous, stomach, histology, stratum compactum
GENITAL MYCOSIS IN MAIL DOGS
Boiko Georgiev, Teodora Popova
As a result of microscopic and microbiological tests on semen from two dogs with signs of infertilitynecrospermia was established and fungi of the genus Fusarium were isolated. When develop in food and feedthey emit toxins that cause mycotoxicosis in animals and birds after oral intake. Zearalenone, one of mycotoxinsof these mushrooms is known as the cause of the atrophy of the gonads, spermatogenesis disorders, and infertility.This, however, is the first release for the isolation of fungi from the seminal fluid and setting them as thecause of genital mycosis.
Key words:infertility, Fusarium sp., genital mycosis, dogs.
RADIOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SECONDARY COMPLICATED SINUSITIS INA RACING MARE – CASE REPORT
Georgi I. Georgiev, Lyubomir Hristakiev, Nikolay Mehandzhiyski, Chavdar Filipov, Ilya Raychev, Georgi D. Georgiev, Georgi Popov, Iliana Ruzhanova, Vasil Manov, Bogdan Aminkov
The purpose of this research reflects the development process of secondary sinusitis in horses regardingthe topographic-anatomical preconditions for unilateral involvement of the all six sinusеs complex. The medicalanamnesis and diagnostic imaging tests conducted previously in a veterinary clinic in Germany were used. Thehead of the mare was examined by X-ray radiography and computed tomography (CT) methods after its death.Тhe following procedure included a treatment of the skull and the established osteolytic alterations have beencompared by us with those obtained from the X-ray images and CT scans, as well as the applied CT slices and3D reconstructions of the alive patient. This prominent clinical case reveals an opportunity for an interpretationof the expansion and complications of sinusitis in horses with an emphasis on the anatomical characteristics ofthe sinuses, visualized by diagnostic imaging methods. Through this study we hope to contribute to the timelydiagnosis and treatment of the paranasal sinuses inflammation in horses.
Key words: paranasal sinus system, secondary sinusitis, computed tomography, horse.