Online First

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE GROWTH PROMOTER EFFECTIVENES FOR  DIFFERENT DRUG FORMULATIONS, CONTAINING OREGANO OIL FOR BROILER CHICKENS

Ralitsa Bankova, Dimitrichka Dimitrova, Zaprianka Shindarska

Published online: November 28, 2018

ABSTRACT

A comparative study for broiler chickens using different drug formulations, containing oregano essential oil was added daily: Ecodiar® liquid 5% to the drinking water; Ecodiar® powder 5 % and oregano oil 1 % to the complete feed from the 1 to the last day of the finishing period (day 41). The experiment included 80 clinically healthy broiler chickens of the both sexes, 1-day old, hybrid Cobb-500, bred to the last day of the starter (n = 40) and bred to the last day of the finishing period (n = 40). In the dynamics (during the starter and finishing period), the indicators were determined: body weight, average daily gain, feed intake per capita/per day, energy and protein intake, feed efficiency, energy efficiency and crude protein efficiency per 1 kg gain, weight of the carcass, liver, heart, gizzard, spleen and bursa of Fabricius. The our results showed that in body weight gain and carcass, liver, spleen and heart weights of the broilers without statistically significant differences were observed compared to the control group during the starter and the finishing periods

In the gizzard weight of broilers that received Ecodiar® liquid 5 % and Ecodiar® powder 5 % with statistically significant differences were observed during the starter period, compared to the control group (p < 0,05). In weights of the bursa Fabricius in broilers that received Ecodiar® liquid 5 % and 1 % of oregano oil (p<0,05) with statistically significant difference was observed during the grower‐finisher period.

Key words: chickens, drug  formulations, containing oregano oil, growth.

TMVM, Online First, 28.11.2018; e-ISSN 2534-9341

Bankova R., Dimitrova D., Shindarska Z., A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE GROWTH PROMOTER EFFECTIVENES FOR  DIFFERENT DRUG FORMULATIONS, CONTAINING OREGANO OIL FOR  BROILER CHICKENS, 2018, Tradition and modernity in Veterinary Medicine, Online First, 28.11.2018; e-ISSN 2534-9341

COMPARATIVE M-MODE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC STUDY OF MALE AND FEMALE DOGS WITH DEGENERATIVE MITRAL VALVE DISEASE (DMVD)

Atanas Pankov

Published online: November 28, 2018

ABSTRACT

Via the  M-mode echocardiographic study of  dogs, without and with pulmonary edema, various statistically significant differences were obtained in dogs separated by gender and showed the different response of the myocardium to the volume loading of the male and female dogs with MVD.

Keyw ords: dogs, male, female, myxomatous, pulmonary, edema.

TMVM, Online First, 28.11.2018; e-ISSN 2534-9341

Atanas Pankov, COMPARATIVE M-MODE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC STUDY OF MALE AND FEMALE DOGS WITH DEGENERATIVE MITRAL VALVE DISEASE (DMVD), 2018, Tradition and modernity in Veterinary Medicine, Online First, 28.11.2018; e-ISSN 2534-9341

 

STUDY ON INTERNAL PARASITES IN SNAKES GROWN IN DOMESTIC CONDITIONS

Seven Mustafa, Radoslav Rafailov, Kostadin Kanchev, Constantinos Koureas, Maria-Ioanna Manioti

Published online: September 19, 2018

ABSTRACT

           Parasitological study of domestic snakes is a diagnostic approach of great veterinary significance, as many of the internal diseases have similar clinical signs. With modifications of our known diagnostic methods, a number of internal non-infectious diseases can be differentiated from parasitoses or appropriate corrective measures can be identified in breeding conditions. Domestic snakes have been investigated, with some being found to contain oxirid eggs. A study on this finding was carried out and methods of investigation, parasitosis data and procedure for treatment were presented, with commenting on the importance of oxyuridosis in serpentes It is necessary to emphasize the importance of a periodic prophylactic control of the parasitological status of domestic snakes as a preventive measure against diseases, which is of great importance for the breeders and the pet shops because there is a gathering of animals and an exchange of inventory.

           Key words: snake, internal parasites, nematodes, oxyuriasis, pinworms

            TMVM, Online First, 19.09.2018; e-ISSN 2534-9341

Seven Mustafa, Radoslav Rafailov, Kostadin Kanchev, Constantinos Koureas, Maria-Ioanna Manioti, STUDY ON INTERNAL PARASITES IN SNAKES GROWN IN DOMESTIC CONDITIONS, 2018, Tradition and modernity in Veterinary Medicine, Online First, 19.09.2018; e-ISSN 2534-9341

EFFECTS OF TOTAL INTRAVENOUS ANESTHESIA ON HEMATOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY VALUES DURING HEALT CHEK IN BROWN BEARS (URSUS ARCTOS)

Bogdan Aminkov, Nikolay Mehandzhiyski, Konstantin Aminkov, Ilia Peev

Published online: June 2, 2018

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to define the physiological responses of captive brown bears (Ursus arctos)immobilized by  standardized total intravenous anesthesia protocol (TIVA), during routinehealth check. Hematology and biochemistry parameters (WBC, Lymph, Mon, Gran, Lymph %, Mon %, Gran %, RBC, HGB, HCT, PLT, ALT, AST, ALP, GLU, TP, ALB, UREA, CREAT, GLB) were evaluated in nine brown bears, anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia protocol for ninety minutes during the health check. The animals were kept in the „Park for Dancing Bears“ Belitza, Bulgaria. A standardized premedication protocol of tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl (Zoletil 100® Virbac, France) at 1 mg/kg, medetomidine HCl at 0.003 mg/kg (3 mcg/kg) and butorphanol tartrate at 0.05 mg/kg (50 mcg/kg) administered intramuscularly. Anesthesia was induced intravenously with a combined bolus of ketamine at 2 mg/kg and propofol at 2 mg/kg, and maintained with a constant rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine at 0,8 mg/kg/h and propofol 0,04 at mg/kg/min. Overall results compared to baseline levels did not present statistically significant changes, to the exception of GLU, and CREAT. In conclusion, the research anesthetic protocol is an inexpensive and relatively safe method for various manipulations and procedures in the brown bear.

Key words: Ursus arctos, TIVA, Hematology, biochemistry

TMVM, Online First, 2.06.2018; e-ISSN 2534-9341

Bogdan Aminkov, Nikolay Mehandzhiyski, Konstantin Aminkov, Ilia Peev, EFFECTS OF TOTAL INTRAVENOUS ANESTHESIA ON HEMATOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY VALUES DURING HEALT CHEK  IN BROWN BEARS (URSUS ARCTOS), 2018, Tradition and modernity in Veterinary Medicine, Online First, 2.06.2018; e-ISSN 2534-9341

APPLICATION OF PLATELET-RICH PLASMA IN NONUNION FEMUR FRACTURE IN A DOG – CASE REPORT

Bogdan Aminkov, Konstantin Aminkov, Nikolay Mehandzhiyski

Published online: June 1, 2018

ABSTRACT

The role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a promoter of bone union remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on non-union femur fracture in a dog. This is a case of a 3 year old mongrel dog with femur fracture. Following unsuccessful treatment of the fracture with dynamic compression plate and external bone fixation, PRP was injected through the skin three times every 10 days in the region of the fracture line. One month after the last injection, there was union between the bone fragments. The administration of PRP in the event of unsuccessful union between bone fragments stimulates bone union.

Key words: dog, bone non-union, platelet-rich plasma

TMVM, Online First, 1.06.2018; e-ISSN 2534-9341

Bogdan Aminkov, Konstantin Aminkov, Nikolay Mehandzhiyski, APPLICATION OF PLATELET-RICH PLASMA IN NONUNION FEMUR FRACTURE IN A DOG – CASE REPORT, 2018, Tradition and modernity in Veterinary Medicine, Online First, 1.06.2018;  e-ISSN 2534-9341

OUTBREAK OF INFLUENZA A VIRUS (H5N1) IN DALMATIAN PELICANS SREBARNA RESERVE, BULGARIA, 2015

Georgi M. Stoimenov, Gabriela V. Goujgoulova, Kalin Hristov, Atanaska Teneva

Published online: May 16, 2018

ABSTRACT

On March 25, 2015, a highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were isolated from the carcasses of a 3 Dalmatian pelicans (Pelecanus crispus) in Bulgaria. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and H5N1-specific real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) analysis showed, that the H5 and N1 avian influenza virus was presented in the lung, trachea, proventriculus, cloaca and brain tissue of the dalmatian pelicans. Subsequent sequence analysis found the following motif of basic amino acids at the cleavage site of hemagglutinin: PQRERRRKRGLF, which is characteristic of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of a part from segment 4 of A/dalmatian pelican/ Sreburna/Bulgaria/2015 (H5N1) showed a close genetic relationship with influenza viruses A (H5N1) clade 2.3.2.1. Тhe establishment of HPAI H5N1 in 2015, belonging to the genetic clade 2.3.2.1, circulating in Southeast Asia and in Bulgaria for the second time since 2010, shows the great potential for the trans-continental distribution of the virus and its ability to cause not only epizootic outbreaks, but also panzootic waves.

Key words: H5N1, Bulgaria, Dalmatian pelicans, Phylogenetic analysis

TMVM, Online First, 16.05.2018; e-ISSN 2534-9341

Georgi M. Stoimenov, Gabriela V. Goujgoulova, Kalin Hristov, Atanaska Teneva, OUTBREAK OF INFLUENZA A VIRUS (H5N1) IN DALMATIAN PELICANS SREBARNA RESERVE, BULGARIA, 2018, Tradition and modernity in Veterinary Medicine, Online First, 16.05.2018;  e-ISSN 2534-9341

CONTROL MEASURES ON MYCOPLASMA HYOPNEUMONIAE INFECTIONS IN PIGS – (REVIEW)

Iliyan Manev

Published online: April 18, 2018

ABSTRACT

Control of swine enzootic pneumonia involves a wide range of measures including immunoprophylaxis, therapy and metaphylaxis. The article is dedicated to research in the field of therapy, control of the disease and prevention of bacterial resistance. An overview of antimicrobial therapy mentions the suitable drugs against M. hyopneumoniae, the optimal dosage regimes and routes of application. Types of vaccines, immunization strategies and some unfavorable factors that influence immunity to swine enzootic pneumonia are being described.

Key words: enzootic pneumonia, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, pigs, control

TMVM, Online First, 18.04.2018; e-ISSN 2534-9341

Iliyan Manev, CONTROL MEASURES ON MYCOPLASMA HYOPNEUMONIAE INFECTIONS IN PIGS – (REVIEW), 2018, Tradition and modernity in Veterinary Medicine, Online First, 18.04.2018;  e-ISSN 2534-9341

THREE-DIMENSIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF THE MAMMARY GLAND IN LACTATING COWS

Ivan Fasulkov, Manol Karadaev, Nasko Vasilev, Martin Nikolov, Tsvetelin Nonov

Published online: February 27, 2018

ABSTRACT

            The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of visualization and characterization of the mammary glands structures in lactating cows through 3D ultrasonography. Ten Black-and-white cows, 5 years of age, weighing 380-450 kg, were included in the experiment. The cows were reared in the cattle barn of the Experimental Farm of the Trakia University – Stara Zagora. The animals were in third lactation, between the 2nd and 4th months of lactation.Ultrasound examinations of the mammary gland was made through transcutaneous approach with linear transducer at a frequency of 10.0 MHz. The 3D sonography at the top of the teat was characterized by a clear visualization of the morphological structures papillary orifice, teat canal and rosette of Furstenberg. Above them, in the three-dimensional image were differentiated three-layer construction of the teat wall, as well as milk in the teat cistern. At the boundary between teat and gland cistern of the mammary gland, as clear rounded structures in 3D images were visualized vessels of the Furstenberg’s venous ring. When examining the body of the udder, three-dimensional ultrasonography allowed characterization of lactiferous ducts in gland cistern and normal mammary parenchyma. Our results indicate that 3D ultrasonography of the mammary gland in dairy cows allows detailed imaging of the morphological structures located therein. This will lead to more accurate diagnosis and prognosis in cases of pathological changes localized in teat and mammary parenchyma of the udder.

Key words: Ultrasonography, 3D, mammary gland, cows

TMVM, Online First, 27.02.2018; e-ISSN 2534-9341

Ivan Fasulkov, Manol Karadaev, Nasko Vasilev, Martin Nikolov, Tsvetelin Nonov, THREE-DIMENSIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF THE MAMMARY GLAND IN LACTATING COWS, 2018, Tradition and modernity in Veterinary Medicine, Online First, 27.02.2018;  e-ISSN 2534-9341

CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM IN PEAT LITTER – CAUSE OF DEADLY DISSEASE IN REPTILESIN PRIVATE TERRARIUM

Teodora Popova, Vasil Manov

Published online: January 15, 2018

ABSTRACT

Materials from 6 months old snakes of the species shooter snake (Coluber caspius), died with neurological symptoms and uncharacteristic eating of peat litter, were tested. At the microscopic examination of samples of liver and peat litter were found bacteria with morphology, typical of Clostridium botulinum, then this species was isolated from studied materials. The сlinical, pathological and microbiological results show that the most likely cause of these symptoms and mortality was botulinum intoxication. To prevent the disease, the peat and other bedding for reptiles should not be kept in wet and anaerobic conditions.

Key words: reptiles, peat, Clostridium botulinum

TMVM, Online First, 15.01.2018; e-ISSN 2534-9341

Teodora Popova & Vasil Manov, 2018, CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM  IN PEAT LITTER – CAUSE OF DEADLY DISSEASE IN REPTILES IN PRIVATE TERRARIUM, Tradition and modernity in Veterinary Medicine, Online First, 15.01.2018;  e-ISSN 2534-9341

ANESTHESIA, CHEMICAL RESTRAINT AND PAIN MANAGEMENT IN SNAKES (SERPENTES) – A REVIEW

Seven Mustafa, Nadya Zlateva

Published online: January 9, 2018

 ABSTRACT

            In the last few years the exotic animals are becoming more and more popular pets. The prophylactic and medical procedures in these animals require appropriate immobilization and anesthesia. The information for the anesthetic and analgesic agents for these animals is not enough. The purpose of this study was to be made a review of the appropriate anesthetic agents, methods and schemes for sedation, analgesia and anesthesia in snakes, which could help veterinary doctors to perform safer clinical examination or painless invasive procedures with a minimal stress for the patient.

Key words: anesthesia, sedation, snake

TMVM, Online First, 09.01.2018; e-ISSN 2534-9341

Seven Mustafa & Nadya Zlateva, 2018, ANESTHESIA, CHEMICAL RESTRAINT AND PAIN MANAGEMENT IN SNAKES (SERPENTES) – A REVIEW, Tradition and modernity in Veterinary Medicine, Online First, 09.01.2018;  e-ISSN 2534-9341

AELUROSTRONGYLUS ABSTRUSUS IN CATS – DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

Boris Borisov, Radoslav Rafailov, Dimitar Hadzhimitev, Georgi Marinov, Nadya Zlateva, Evdoxia Magkrioti

 Published online: December 4, 2017

 ABSTRACT

There are a significant number of parasites in which part of their life cycle passes through the lung or adult forms can be found there. Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Strongylida, Angiostrongylidae) is one of the so-called lungworm parasites, and in recent years has gained considerable prevalence in our country. Its location is usually in bronchioles and alveoli and the disease may occur asymptomatically or with cough, breathing disturbances and worsening of the general condition.For a period of 1 year, 60 coprological samples were made in the clinic, six of which were positive for Aelurostrongylus abstrusus as a single invasion or as a co-invasion with other parasites.The specific treatment performed has led to animal healing.

Key words: cats, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, lung parasites

TMVM, Online First, 04.12.2017; e-ISSN 2534-9341

Boris Borisov, Radoslav Rafailov, Dimitar Hadzhimitev, Georgi Marinov, Nadya Zlateva, Evdoxia Magkrioti, 2017, AELUROSTRONGYLUS ABSTRUSUS IN CATS – DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT, Tradition and modernity in Veterinary Medicine, Online First, 04.12.2017;  e-ISSN 2534-9341

ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF CRITICAL SMALL ANIMAL PATIENTS WITH TRAUMATIC DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA AND GASTRIC DILATATION/VOLVULUS SYNDROME – A REVIEW

Alexandros Frikis, Nadya Zlateva

 Published online: December 4, 2017

 ABSTRACT

Successful anesthetic management of critical patients requires usage of specific anesthetic protocols depending on the animals’ condition, degree of emergence, available equipment, knowledge of doctors etc. Correctly preoperative evaluation, intraoperative monitoring and postoperative monitoring and pain management are the important steps for decreasing of mortality during these conditions.The aim of this article was to review procedures regarding Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus syndrome (GDV) and Traumatic Diaphragmatic Hernia (TDH), two common emergency situations in small animal practice, which share high mortality rates and the need of specific and cautious anesthetic considerations.

Key words:Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus syndrome (GDV), Traumatic Diaphragmatic Hernia (TDH), anesthesia, dog, cat

TMVM, Online First, 04.12.2017; e-ISSN 2534-9341

Alexandros Frikis & Nadya Zlateva, 2017, ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF CRITICAL SMALL ANIMAL PATIENTS WITH TRAUMATIC DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA AND GASTRIC DILATATION/VOLVULUS SYNDROME – A REVIEW, Tradition and modernity in Veterinary Medicine, Online First, 04.12.2017;  e-ISSN 2534-9341

INVASION OF BEE SAMPLES WITH VARROA DESTRUCTOR 

Delka Salkova, Kalinka Gurgulova, Ilian Georgiev

Published online: November 26, 2017

ABSTRACT

The aim of this work was to estimate the level of infestation of bee samples infested with Varroa destructor. It has been performed a laboratory assay of bee samples for the presence of the mite Varroa destructor. The investigation was for a period of two years – 2015 and 2016. The bee samples were collected from diseased and dead bee colonies owned by 149 beekeepers. The result showеd that from 220 bee samples tested, 36 % were positive for Varroa mite and negative samples were 64 %. The level of infestation in positive samples was as follows: less than 5 % were in 39.2 % of samples, between 5 to 20 % and more than 20 % were found in 30.4 % for each level, respectively. In conclusion more than a third of the bee samples were infested with Varroa mites. Most of the bee samples had a low degree of invasion (< 5 %) and the average and the high level of invasion of bee samples were represented by the same values.

Key words: Apis mellifera; bee samples; Varroa destructor; laboratory assay

TMVM, Online First, 26.11.2017; e-ISSN 2534-9341

Delka Salkova, Kalinka Gurgulova, Ilian Georgiev, 2017, INVASION OF BEE SAMPLES WITH VARROA DESTRUCTOR, Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, Online First, 26.11.2017;  e-ISSN 2534-9341

PREGNANCY IN THE BITCH – A PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITION REQUIRING SPECIFIC CARE (Review)

Cvetelina Ivanova &  Plamen Georgiev

Published online: November 26, 2017

ABSTRACT

The physiology of canine pregnancy is characterised with specific features affecting the function of all organs and systems. The last third of pregnancy, when foetal development and growth are the most intensive, is particularly important. After the conception, the animals need not only extra care from their owners, but also veterinary medical monitoring of the bitch and foetuses for prevention or timely diagnosis of illnesses. The present review is focused on nutrition, antiparasitic treatment and vaccination of the pregnant bitch. Practical algorithms for prophylaxis and therapy are proposed. A special emphasis is placed on the role of these procedures on pregnancy course and maintaining, dam health and the vitality of neonates.

Кey words: canine pregnancy, nutrition, prophylactic treatments

TMVM, Online First, 26.11.2017; e-ISSN 2534-9341

Cvetelina Ivanova & Plamen Georgiev, 2017, PREGNANCY IN THE BITCH – A PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITION REQUIRING SPECIFIC CARE, Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, Online First, 26.11.2017;  e-ISSN 2534-9341

COMPARISON OF hCG VS GnRH EFFECTS IN DOUBLE OVSYNCH ON FIRST-SERVICE CONCEPTION RATES IN ANESTRUS DAIRY COWS

Gundars Naglis, Ivan Fasulkov, Manol Karadaev, Radina Vasileva,Georgios Petrovas, Nasko Vasilev

Published online: November 26, 2017

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to compare first-service conception rates after inclusion of either hCG or GnRH in Double Ovsynch to anestrous dairy cows. The animals with follicle size ≥10 mm and no corpus luteum in ovaries were allotted into 2 groups. At the start of the programme, follicle sizes were 13.7±1.5 mm and 13.9±1.2 mm respectively (р=0.5). Higher percentage of ovulations (72.7%) were established in cows treated with hCG vs those treated with GnRH (64.4%, р<0.2094). Follicle sizes at the time of AI were 15.9±0.5 mm and 16.2±0.4 mm (р=0.5). Pregnancy was detected in 38.6% of cows treated with hCG and 42.2% of cows treated with GnRH (р<0.3501).

Key words: anestrus, dairy cows, double Ovsynch

TMVM, Online First, 26.11.2017; e-ISSN 2534-9341

Gundars Naglis, Ivan Fasulkov, Manol Karadaev, Radina Vasileva, Georgios Petrovas, Nasko Vasilev, 2017, COMPARISON OF hCG VS GnRH EFFECTS IN DOUBLE OVSYNCH ON FIRST-SERVICE CONCEPTION RATES IN ANESTRUS DAIRY COWS, Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, Online First, 26.11.2017;  e-ISSN 2534-9341

SUBCLINICAL AND CLINICAL KETOSIS IN SHEEP – RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BODY CONDITION SCORES AND BLOOD β-HYDROXYBUTYRATE AND NON-ESTERIFIED FATTY ACIDS CONCENTRATIONS

Vania Marutsova & Plamen Marutsov

Published online: November 26, 2017

ABSTRACT

The study included a total of 136 sheep from two breeds (Lacaune and Mouton Charollais) to establish changes in the values of body condition score (BCS), β-hydroxybutyrate (ВНВА) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in their blood and their relationship in the development of subclinical (SCK) and clinical (CK) ketosis. The ewes were divided in three groups (pregnant, recently lambed and lactating). Blood concentrations of ВНВА and NEFA were assayed in all ewes. The body condition was scored. Blood ВНВА concentrations were increased in Lacaune sheep from the three groups affected by SCK vs control levels, as well as in animals with CK from all groups vs both controls and SCK. None of Mouton Charollais ewes had blood BHBA concentrations >0.8 mmol/l. The evaluation of BCS of ewes with SCK and CK showed a trend of decrease compared to the control groups. The quantities of NEFA in sheep of the three groups with SCK were statistically significantly elevated vs control groups, while in sheep with CK – decreased, vs both controls and SCK. In meat-type Mouton Charollais ewes, values of NEFA ranged around the reference.

Key words: Ketosis, BCS, ВНВА, NEFA, ewes

TMVM, Online First, 26.11.2017; e-ISSN 2534-9341

Vania Marutsova & Plamen Marutsov, 2017, SUBCLINICAL AND CLINICAL KETOSIS IN SHEEP – RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BODY CONDITION SCORES AND BLOOD β-HYDROXYBUTYRATE AND NON-ESTERIFIED FATTY ACIDS CONCENTRATIONS, Tradition and Modernity in Veterinary Medicine, Online First, 26.11.2017;  e-ISSN 2534-9341