USE OF BONE MARROW (BM) AND CONCENTRATED BONE MARROW ASPIRATE (CBMA) FOR TREATMENT OF CRITICAL LONG FRACTURES
Published online: January 14, 2020
Bone growth is determined by many factors – immobility of bone ends, osteoblastic potency, contact of the bone margins and distance between them. In critically long defects, where the distance between the bone ends is greater than the diameter of the bone, healing processes are compromised because of the limited possibility of bone communication. Applying the gold standard – autotransplantation from a rib, iliac bone, or other donor organ is not always possible, and new healing possibilities are investigated. Synthetic osteoinductive biomaterials such as hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, collagen, composites, and others are successfully used as carriers, but their efficacy is limited without their activation by a biological organic autologous osteoinductor. Recent studies have shown that platelet-rich plasma, bone marrow aspirate, or tissue growth factors have an exceptionally high potential for autologous osteoinductors.The purpose of this article is to compare the osteoinductive potential of bone marrow and concentrated bone marrow aspirate in the healing of critically long fractures without autotransplantation.
Key words: bone marrow, concentrated bone marrow aspirate, critical long fractures
Seroprevalence and risk factor assessment of bovine tuberculosis in crossbred cattle of Chattogram metropolitan area, Bangladesh
Pankaj Chakraborty, Md. Abdul Matin Prodhan
Published online: December 21, 2019
This study was aimed to measure the seroprevalence and risk factors associated with bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in crossbred cattle in Chattogram Metropolitan area, Bangladesh. A total of 289 crossbred cattle were screened using ELISA and their epidemiological data were collected using a pre-set questionnaire. An overall 5.88% seroprevalence of bTB was found in crossbred cattle in this study. Seroprevalence of bTB in crossbred cattle was significantly associated with breed, coughing, age and parity as analyzed by the multivariate analysis of risk factors. The results of the present study prioritize the implementation of appropriate measures to control bTB in crossbred cattle in this region.
Key words: bovine tuberculosis, crossbred cattle, risk factors, seroprevalence
COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF TETRACYCLINE DETECTION IN FOX TEETH IN THE REGIONS WITH ORAL VACCINATION AGAINST RABIES DURING 2016-2017 IN BULGARIA
Darinka Ilieva, Reneta Petrova, Valеntina Marasheva
Published online: October 11, 2019
During the period 2016-2017 in connection with control the effectiveness of oral vaccination, laboratory studies of tetracycline detection of teeth fox (Vulpes vulpes) were carried out in Bulgaria. From the regions with rabies vaccination during last two years total 1834 samples for presence of biomarker tetracycline were examinated and determined age categories of target animals. The teeth samples were collected from a total 578 settlements in 16 regions. The data indicated, that the rate of prevalence tetracycline in fox tееth varied between 65-73%.
Key words: tetracycline, oral vaccination, rabies, fox.
CLINICAL SIGNS OF EXTENDED ESTROUS FOLLOWED BY PREGNANCY IN BITCH: A CASE REPORT
Yordan Todorov, Mihail Chervenkov, Emil Sapundjiev
Published online: August 23, 2019
In this report is presented the case of extended estrous accompanied by early embryonic development in bitch. The animal is 3 year’s old Jack Russell terrier, with history of two successful pregnancies. On the day 8 and 9 after the beginning of a normal estrous, the bitch mate with a 7 years old male dog of the same breed. In the following two weeks after the copulation the clinical signs of estrous continued. The whole blood test was in norm and the echographic examination does not reveal any pathological changes of the uterus. Only the vaginal smear gives some consideration for local infection so treatment of the genital organs was prescribed. After treatment the clinical signs disappeared. Thirty five days after breeding, another ultrasound was performed and pregnancy with 5 fetuses was found. On the 64th day after copulation, five puppies were born alive. This report shows that even if bitch expressed clinical signs of extended estrous, a possibility of early pregnancy must be taken in consideration, especially when there is information for successful mating with male.
Key words: dog, estrus cycle, embryonic development
PROGNOSTIC AND DIAGNOSTIC VALUES OF ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS (APPS) AND ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED BACTERIAL CYSTITIS IN DOGS.
Hany Hassan, Ahmed Zaghawa, Mahmoud Aly, Ahmed Kamr, Mohamed Nayel, Mostafa Abd El Gaber Mohamed, Ali Abdelazeim and Nehal Elgamasy
Published online: August 22, 2019
The aim of the study is the further use of ultrasound and acute phase proteins in diagnosis of bacterial cystitis in dogs. The present research was performed on 15 dogs apparently healthy, their weight were ranged from 20±0.5 Kg BW. Divided into 2 groups, Group (1): contained 10 dogs subjected to experimentally induce bacterial cystitis by pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Group (2): contained 5 dogs act as control group. The diseased dogs showed inappetance, abdominal pain, pollakiuria, stranguria, arched back, lethargy and depression, compared to the control group which was were very active, in good physical condition and had normal appetite. The biochemical alteration included no significant change in kidney functions as serum creatinine, BUN and uric acid. Significant increase in serum haptoglobin, SAA from the 3rd day after induction till the end of experiment. There is significant decrease in serum total protein and albumin from the 3rd day till the end of experiment, compared to the control group. Urine analysis illustrated alkaline pH, negative glycosuria, and proteinuria, compared to the control group. Ultrasound imaging showed increase of bladder wall echogenicity, decrease in circumscribed anechoic area represented the urine which appear hyperechoic and contain suspended material which represents cellular debris, irregular bladder mucosa these changes at the 3rd day till the 15th day, compared to the control group. Macroscopic findings of dogs’ urinary bladder showed diffuse thickening of the bladder wall and haemorrhage of dogs with induced bacterial cystitis. Microscopically, urinary bladder showed destruction and desquamation of transitional epithelium in the lumen of the urinary bladder. The lamina propria and submucosa showed haemorrhages and congested blood vessels.
Key words: Dogs; Staphylococcus aureus; Cystitis, Acute phase proteins, Ultrasonography
SCREENING TESTS OF DETECTION ENZOOTIC BOVINE LEUKOSIS IN BULGARIA DURING 2016-2017
Valentina Marasheva-Georgieva, Darinka Ilieva, Reneta Petrova
Published online: July 09, 2019
In 2016, with blocking ELISA for antibodies in individual blood sera from cattle, seropositive reagents were found in 2 districts: Lovech – 3.8% and Montana – 35%. In 2017, the seropositive reagents in Blagoevgrad district were 17.4%. In the other 2 districts – Lovech and Sofia-city the laboratory tests were with negative result. In 2016-2017, in 3 districts a screening studies of single blood samples was carried out, for which was not perform statistically reliable results. During 2017 in NRL „EBL“ were using ELISA test for screening of antibodies in pooled and individual milk samples against gp 51. In 9 districts, 134 pooled and 3 individual milk samples were tested and a total of 101 positive reagents were detected. For control and prevention of EBL in Bulgaria, European funding is needed to implement a monitoring program.
Key words: enzootic bovine leukosis (EBL), screening, ELISА
SEASON OF DELIVERY, AGE OF FIRST FERTILISATION AND MILKING YIELD DURING THE FIRST LACTATION PERIOD OF HEIFERS
Vladimir Plansky, Kalin Hristov
Published online: June 11, 2019
In recent years, in some regions of the Republic of Bulgaria production of cow’s milk has been focused on the construction and establishing industrial cow breeding farms (complexes). In order to meet the need to ensure relevant increase of cows population for such large farms, it is important to provide young reproductive animals. The aim of this study is to evaluate correlation between the age of fertilisation versus the birth season (autumn, winter, spring, summer) and the quantity of cow’s milk during the 305 lactation days. Many authors share the opinion about impact of the season of birth of female calves and the type nutrition as key factors influencing all these indicators. We have set us the task to find out, what is the role of these issues in a large, industrial, cow breeding complex of 6.270 large ruminants (bovines).
Within our surveys, the age of the first fertilization of the heifers included in reproduction campaign is really dependent on the season of their birth. The earlier is the fertilization of those born in summer-autumn, respective time gap being 24 days compared to those born in the autumn-winter part of the year. The average milk yield of 616 primers (of first calf) for 305 lactation days is 8.164 kg. This milking rate is by 355 kg more than the one demonstrated by those born during the spring-summer season compared to those born in the autumn-winter season.
Key words: fertilization, heifers, first lactation, milk yield
HYPOSPADIA IN SMALL RUMINANTS: A CASE REPORT
Kalin Hristov, Aleksandar Stoimenov
Published online: June 07, 2019
Hypospadias is a rare congenital malformation of the urethra reported in dogs, sheep, goats, cattle, rats, nonhuman primates and humans. Affected animals may have other congenital or developmental anomalies such as cryptorchidism, which is to be the most common congenital anomaly associated with hypospadias.
In this clinical case is described condition of six weeks old male goat, weighing 10 kg, in Vrazhdebna Training and Experimental Field Centre of the University of Forestry, with signs of urine scalding on the ventral perineum. Physical examination revealed aplasia of the penis and the urethra opened cranially to the scrotum. The diagnosis was made as hypospadias and penile aplasia.
Key words: hypospadias; penile aplasia; male goat
THREE-DIMENSIONAL (3D) ULTRASOUND INVESTIGATIONS FOR MONITORING OF THE SECOND AND THIRD PREGNANCY TRIMESTER IN GOATS
Manol Karadaev, Ivan Fasulkov, Nasko Vasilev, Kalin Hristov, Ivan Fedev
Published online: February 20, 2019
The purpose of this study was to determine the possibility of visualization of fetal and uterine structures in the second and third pregnancy trimester in goats through three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonography. Twenty Bulgarian local goats, aged between 2 and 4 years, weighing 46-52 kg with previously confirmed pregnancy were used in the study. Ultrasound investigations were performed during the 56 – 133 day of pregnancy, at a 2-week interval, via transabdominal approach and an 8.0 MHz linear transducer. Initially, the fetal and uterine structures were visualized in two-dimensional mode (B-mode), and then reconstructed into three-dimensional images using 3D software of the ultrasound machine (SonoScape S2 Vet). The results of this study have shown that 3D ultrasonography is a comparatively easy method to visualize individual parts of the fetus and its internal organs during the second and third pregnancy trimester. At the beginning of the second pregnancy trimester, it was possible visualization and differentiation of 3D ultrasound images of the fetal head and body. At the end of this period (90th day of pregnancy) is visualized clear outline of the skull of the fetus, as well as fetal orbit. During the last pregnancy trimester, internal fetal organs such as the forestomaches, kidneys, heart, ribs, etc. were visualized by 3D ultrasound examination. Throughout the study period, clearly 3D images of placentomes were visualized. The analysis of the obtained results shows that three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound examination of the fetal structures in the second and third pregnancy trimester in goats provides an opportunity for detailed observation of individual parts of the body and its internal organs. The resulting clear 3D images of fetal morphological structures can be used as a reference for early detection of embryo-fetal abnormalities.
Key words: Ultrasonography, 3D, goats, pregnancy
COMPARATIVE HEMATOLOGICAL PROFILE OF EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS, TRICHINELLA BRITOVI AND TRICHINELLA PSEUDOSPIRALIS MICE
Valeria Dilcheva, Svetlozara Petkova, Ivelin Vladov
Published online: January 28, 2019
The study aimed to observed hematological changes occurring during experimentally induced infection with Trichinella spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis in mice. We performed hematological blood profile, tracking 15 blood indicators. In statistical analysis made by Two-way ANOVA, there were significant differences of HGB, MCHC, PLT, Lymph%,Gran% in all three types of trichinellosis compared to control animals. Capsule-forming T. spiralis showed statistically significant differences in HGB, MCHC, Lymph% and PLT compared to the other two species. Non capsule- forming T. pseudospiralis showed statistically significant differences in Lymph%, Gran% relative to the control and in Gran% relative to T. spiralis.
Key words:Trichinella spiralis, Trichinella britovi, Trichinella pseudospiralis, hematological test
TWO CASES OF ECTOPIC ABDOMINAL PREGNANCY IN QUEENS
Marina Ivanova, Cvetelina Ivanova, Todor Marinkov, Plamen Georgiev
Published online: January 22, 2019
Еxtrauterine pregnancy (or ectopic) pregnancy, is a rare condition, when embryos or fetuses are located outside the uterus. The objective of this work was to describe two cases of abdominal ectopic pregnancy found during a routine spay of stray cats.Before surgery in both animals abdominal enlargement was detected. Fetuses were located in the abdominal cavity, covered adhesiv by omentum, with no clear traces of fetal membranes. In the first cat 3 and in the other 2 deformed fetuses in size from 3 to 6 cm were found. In the second animals the fetal limbs and head were completely formed. Bones ossification was visualized by X-ray.The uterus size in queens were same during a non-pregnant state without visible external changes. After neutering animals recovered quickly. The second operation was performed more than three months after the end of the breeding season. It was assumed that the described clinical cases were refer to secondary abdominal pregnancy.They are evidence that ectopic pregnancy in cats can be detected not only as an accidental finding but also by assumption of prolonged pregnanc.
Key words: cat, ectopic pregnancy, fetuses
Pathomorphological changes in newborn pigs induced by infection with vaccinal strains and field isolates of Suid Herpes virus 1. Part II. Respiratory system
Published online: January 18, 2019
Comparative pathomorphological studies of newborn piglets prior to colostrum intake after infection with a vaccine strain and two uterothropic strains of the Aujeszky’s disease strains – Mogila and Zagora II were performed. The studies were conducted with 21 large, well-developed piglets derived from an industrial pig farm, without antibodies to Suid herpesvirus 1. Histological, histochemical and electron microscopic studies have been performed. It was found that strains of the Aujeszky’s disease, which differ in virulence and tissue tropism, caused different severity, characteristic clinical signs and pathomorphologic changes in experimental animals. The clinical signs are related to changes in the respiratory and digestive systems, bedsores and apathy. In the lungs of the pigs, infected with strain St.Zagora II and strain MK 35gE–, atelectatic and proliferative changes were observed. Serous – fibrinous pleuritis, fibrinogen necrotic pneumonia and the presence of inclusions type Cowdry A in the epithelial and connective tissue in lungs of the tested animals were inspected.
Key words: newborn pigs, respiratory system, Suid herpesvirus 1
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE GROWTH PROMOTER EFFECTIVENES FOR DIFFERENT DRUG FORMULATIONS, CONTAINING OREGANO OIL FOR BROILER CHICKENS
Ralitsa Bankova, Dimitrichka Dimitrova, Zaprianka Shindarska
Published online: November 28, 2018
A comparative study for broiler chickens using different drug formulations, containing oregano essential oil was added daily: Ecodiar® liquid 5% to the drinking water; Ecodiar® powder 5 % and oregano oil 1 % to the complete feed from the 1 to the last day of the finishing period (day 41). The experiment included 80 clinically healthy broiler chickens of the both sexes, 1-day old, hybrid Cobb-500, bred to the last day of the starter (n = 40) and bred to the last day of the finishing period (n = 40). In the dynamics (during the starter and finishing period), the indicators were determined: body weight, average daily gain, feed intake per capita/per day, energy and protein intake, feed efficiency, energy efficiency and crude protein efficiency per 1 kg gain, weight of the carcass, liver, heart, gizzard, spleen and bursa of Fabricius. The our results showed that in body weight gain and carcass, liver, spleen and heart weights of the broilers without statistically significant differences were observed compared to the control group during the starter and the finishing periods
In the gizzard weight of broilers that received Ecodiar® liquid 5 % and Ecodiar® powder 5 % with statistically significant differences were observed during the starter period, compared to the control group (p < 0,05). In weights of the bursa Fabricius in broilers that received Ecodiar® liquid 5 % and 1 % of oregano oil (p<0,05) with statistically significant difference was observed during the grower‐finisher period.
Key words: chickens, drug formulations, containing oregano oil, growth.
COMPARATIVE M-MODE ECHOCARDIOGRAPHIC STUDY OF MALE AND FEMALE DOGS WITH DEGENERATIVE MITRAL VALVE DISEASE (DMVD)
Published online: November 28, 2018
Via the M-mode echocardiographic study of dogs, without and with pulmonary edema, various statistically significant differences were obtained in dogs separated by gender and showed the different response of the myocardium to the volume loading of the male and female dogs with MVD.
Keyw ords: dogs, male, female, myxomatous, pulmonary, edema.
STUDY ON INTERNAL PARASITES IN SNAKES GROWN IN DOMESTIC CONDITIONS
Seven Mustafa, Radoslav Rafailov, Kostadin Kanchev, Constantinos Koureas, Maria-Ioanna Manioti
Published online: September 19, 2018
Parasitological study of domestic snakes is a diagnostic approach of great veterinary significance, as many of the internal diseases have similar clinical signs. With modifications of our known diagnostic methods, a number of internal non-infectious diseases can be differentiated from parasitoses or appropriate corrective measures can be identified in breeding conditions. Domestic snakes have been investigated, with some being found to contain oxirid eggs. A study on this finding was carried out and methods of investigation, parasitosis data and procedure for treatment were presented, with commenting on the importance of oxyuridosis in serpentes It is necessary to emphasize the importance of a periodic prophylactic control of the parasitological status of domestic snakes as a preventive measure against diseases, which is of great importance for the breeders and the pet shops because there is a gathering of animals and an exchange of inventory.
Key words: snake, internal parasites, nematodes, oxyuriasis, pinworms
EFFECTS OF TOTAL INTRAVENOUS ANESTHESIA ON HEMATOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY VALUES DURING HEALT CHEK IN BROWN BEARS (URSUS ARCTOS)
Bogdan Aminkov, Nikolay Mehandzhiyski, Konstantin Aminkov, Ilia Peev
Published online: June 2, 2018
The present study was conducted to define the physiological responses of captive brown bears (Ursus arctos)immobilized by standardized total intravenous anesthesia protocol (TIVA), during routinehealth check. Hematology and biochemistry parameters (WBC, Lymph, Mon, Gran, Lymph %, Mon %, Gran %, RBC, HGB, HCT, PLT, ALT, AST, ALP, GLU, TP, ALB, UREA, CREAT, GLB) were evaluated in nine brown bears, anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia protocol for ninety minutes during the health check. The animals were kept in the „Park for Dancing Bears“ Belitza, Bulgaria. A standardized premedication protocol of tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl (Zoletil 100® Virbac, France) at 1 mg/kg, medetomidine HCl at 0.003 mg/kg (3 mcg/kg) and butorphanol tartrate at 0.05 mg/kg (50 mcg/kg) administered intramuscularly. Anesthesia was induced intravenously with a combined bolus of ketamine at 2 mg/kg and propofol at 2 mg/kg, and maintained with a constant rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine at 0,8 mg/kg/h and propofol 0,04 at mg/kg/min. Overall results compared to baseline levels did not present statistically significant changes, to the exception of GLU, and CREAT. In conclusion, the research anesthetic protocol is an inexpensive and relatively safe method for various manipulations and procedures in the brown bear.
Key words: Ursus arctos, TIVA, Hematology, biochemistry
APPLICATION OF PLATELET-RICH PLASMA IN NONUNION FEMUR FRACTURE IN A DOG – CASE REPORT
Bogdan Aminkov, Konstantin Aminkov, Nikolay Mehandzhiyski
Published online: June 1, 2018
The role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a promoter of bone union remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on non-union femur fracture in a dog. This is a case of a 3 year old mongrel dog with femur fracture. Following unsuccessful treatment of the fracture with dynamic compression plate and external bone fixation, PRP was injected through the skin three times every 10 days in the region of the fracture line. One month after the last injection, there was union between the bone fragments. The administration of PRP in the event of unsuccessful union between bone fragments stimulates bone union.
Key words: dog, bone non-union, platelet-rich plasma
OUTBREAK OF INFLUENZA A VIRUS (H5N1) IN DALMATIAN PELICANS SREBARNA RESERVE, BULGARIA, 2015
Georgi M. Stoimenov, Gabriela V. Goujgoulova, Kalin Hristov, Atanaska Teneva
Published online: May 16, 2018
On March 25, 2015, a highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses were isolated from the carcasses of a 3 Dalmatian pelicans (Pelecanus crispus) in Bulgaria. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and H5N1-specific real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) analysis showed, that the H5 and N1 avian influenza virus was presented in the lung, trachea, proventriculus, cloaca and brain tissue of the dalmatian pelicans. Subsequent sequence analysis found the following motif of basic amino acids at the cleavage site of hemagglutinin: PQRERRRKRGLF, which is characteristic of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of a part from segment 4 of A/dalmatian pelican/ Sreburna/Bulgaria/2015 (H5N1) showed a close genetic relationship with influenza viruses A (H5N1) clade 126.96.36.199. Тhe establishment of HPAI H5N1 in 2015, belonging to the genetic clade 188.8.131.52, circulating in Southeast Asia and in Bulgaria for the second time since 2010, shows the great potential for the trans-continental distribution of the virus and its ability to cause not only epizootic outbreaks, but also panzootic waves.
Key words: H5N1, Bulgaria, Dalmatian pelicans, Phylogenetic analysis
CONTROL MEASURES ON MYCOPLASMA HYOPNEUMONIAE INFECTIONS IN PIGS – (REVIEW)
Published online: April 18, 2018
Control of swine enzootic pneumonia involves a wide range of measures including immunoprophylaxis, therapy and metaphylaxis. The article is dedicated to research in the field of therapy, control of the disease and prevention of bacterial resistance. An overview of antimicrobial therapy mentions the suitable drugs against M. hyopneumoniae, the optimal dosage regimes and routes of application. Types of vaccines, immunization strategies and some unfavorable factors that influence immunity to swine enzootic pneumonia are being described.
Key words: enzootic pneumonia, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, pigs, control
THREE-DIMENSIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY OF THE MAMMARY GLAND IN LACTATING COWS
Ivan Fasulkov, Manol Karadaev, Nasko Vasilev, Martin Nikolov, Tsvetelin Nonov
Published online: February 27, 2018
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of visualization and characterization of the mammary glands structures in lactating cows through 3D ultrasonography. Ten Black-and-white cows, 5 years of age, weighing 380-450 kg, were included in the experiment. The cows were reared in the cattle barn of the Experimental Farm of the Trakia University – Stara Zagora. The animals were in third lactation, between the 2nd and 4th months of lactation.Ultrasound examinations of the mammary gland was made through transcutaneous approach with linear transducer at a frequency of 10.0 MHz. The 3D sonography at the top of the teat was characterized by a clear visualization of the morphological structures papillary orifice, teat canal and rosette of Furstenberg. Above them, in the three-dimensional image were differentiated three-layer construction of the teat wall, as well as milk in the teat cistern. At the boundary between teat and gland cistern of the mammary gland, as clear rounded structures in 3D images were visualized vessels of the Furstenberg’s venous ring. When examining the body of the udder, three-dimensional ultrasonography allowed characterization of lactiferous ducts in gland cistern and normal mammary parenchyma. Our results indicate that 3D ultrasonography of the mammary gland in dairy cows allows detailed imaging of the morphological structures located therein. This will lead to more accurate diagnosis and prognosis in cases of pathological changes localized in teat and mammary parenchyma of the udder.
Key words: Ultrasonography, 3D, mammary gland, cows
CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM IN PEAT LITTER – CAUSE OF DEADLY DISSEASE IN REPTILESIN PRIVATE TERRARIUM
Teodora Popova, Vasil Manov
Published online: January 15, 2018
Materials from 6 months old snakes of the species shooter snake (Coluber caspius), died with neurological symptoms and uncharacteristic eating of peat litter, were tested. At the microscopic examination of samples of liver and peat litter were found bacteria with morphology, typical of Clostridium botulinum, then this species was isolated from studied materials. The сlinical, pathological and microbiological results show that the most likely cause of these symptoms and mortality was botulinum intoxication. To prevent the disease, the peat and other bedding for reptiles should not be kept in wet and anaerobic conditions.
Key words: reptiles, peat, Clostridium botulinum
Online First, 15.01.2018; e-ISSN 2534-9341
ANESTHESIA, CHEMICAL RESTRAINT AND PAIN MANAGEMENT IN SNAKES (SERPENTES) – A REVIEW
Seven Mustafa, Nadya Zlateva
Published online: January 9, 2018
In the last few years the exotic animals are becoming more and more popular pets. The prophylactic and medical procedures in these animals require appropriate immobilization and anesthesia. The information for the anesthetic and analgesic agents for these animals is not enough. The purpose of this study was to be made a review of the appropriate anesthetic agents, methods and schemes for sedation, analgesia and anesthesia in snakes, which could help veterinary doctors to perform safer clinical examination or painless invasive procedures with a minimal stress for the patient.
Key words: anesthesia, sedation, snake
Online First, 09.01.2018; e-ISSN 2534-9341
AELUROSTRONGYLUS ABSTRUSUS IN CATS – DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT
Boris Borisov, Radoslav Rafailov, Dimitar Hadzhimitev, Georgi Marinov, Nadya Zlateva, Evdoxia Magkrioti
Published online: December 4, 2017
There are a significant number of parasites in which part of their life cycle passes through the lung or adult forms can be found there. Aelurostrongylus abstrusus (Strongylida, Angiostrongylidae) is one of the so-called lungworm parasites, and in recent years has gained considerable prevalence in our country. Its location is usually in bronchioles and alveoli and the disease may occur asymptomatically or with cough, breathing disturbances and worsening of the general condition.For a period of 1 year, 60 coprological samples were made in the clinic, six of which were positive for Aelurostrongylus abstrusus as a single invasion or as a co-invasion with other parasites.The specific treatment performed has led to animal healing.
Key words: cats, Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, lung parasites
Online First, 04.12.2017; e-ISSN 2534-9341
ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF CRITICAL SMALL ANIMAL PATIENTS WITH TRAUMATIC DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA AND GASTRIC DILATATION/VOLVULUS SYNDROME – A REVIEW
Alexandros Frikis, Nadya Zlateva
Published online: December 4, 2017
Successful anesthetic management of critical patients requires usage of specific anesthetic protocols depending on the animals’ condition, degree of emergence, available equipment, knowledge of doctors etc. Correctly preoperative evaluation, intraoperative monitoring and postoperative monitoring and pain management are the important steps for decreasing of mortality during these conditions.The aim of this article was to review procedures regarding Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus syndrome (GDV) and Traumatic Diaphragmatic Hernia (TDH), two common emergency situations in small animal practice, which share high mortality rates and the need of specific and cautious anesthetic considerations.
Key words:Gastric Dilatation-Volvulus syndrome (GDV), Traumatic Diaphragmatic Hernia (TDH), anesthesia, dog, cat
Online First, 04.12.2017; e-ISSN 2534-9341
INVASION OF BEE SAMPLES WITH VARROA DESTRUCTOR
Delka Salkova, Kalinka Gurgulova, Ilian Georgiev
Published online: November 26, 2017
The aim of this work was to estimate the level of infestation of bee samples infested with Varroa destructor. It has been performed a laboratory assay of bee samples for the presence of the mite Varroa destructor. The investigation was for a period of two years – 2015 and 2016. The bee samples were collected from diseased and dead bee colonies owned by 149 beekeepers. The result showеd that from 220 bee samples tested, 36 % were positive for Varroa mite and negative samples were 64 %. The level of infestation in positive samples was as follows: less than 5 % were in 39.2 % of samples, between 5 to 20 % and more than 20 % were found in 30.4 % for each level, respectively. In conclusion more than a third of the bee samples were infested with Varroa mites. Most of the bee samples had a low degree of invasion (< 5 %) and the average and the high level of invasion of bee samples were represented by the same values.
Key words: Apis mellifera; bee samples; Varroa destructor; laboratory assay
Online First, 26.11.2017; e-ISSN 2534-9341
PREGNANCY IN THE BITCH – A PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITION REQUIRING SPECIFIC CARE (Review)
Cvetelina Ivanova & Plamen Georgiev
Published online: November 26, 2017
The physiology of canine pregnancy is characterised with specific features affecting the function of all organs and systems. The last third of pregnancy, when foetal development and growth are the most intensive, is particularly important. After the conception, the animals need not only extra care from their owners, but also veterinary medical monitoring of the bitch and foetuses for prevention or timely diagnosis of illnesses. The present review is focused on nutrition, antiparasitic treatment and vaccination of the pregnant bitch. Practical algorithms for prophylaxis and therapy are proposed. A special emphasis is placed on the role of these procedures on pregnancy course and maintaining, dam health and the vitality of neonates.
Кey words: canine pregnancy, nutrition, prophylactic treatments
COMPARISON OF hCG VS GnRH EFFECTS IN DOUBLE OVSYNCH ON FIRST-SERVICE CONCEPTION RATES IN ANESTRUS DAIRY COWS
Gundars Naglis, Ivan Fasulkov, Manol Karadaev, Radina Vasileva,Georgios Petrovas, Nasko Vasilev
Published online: November 26, 2017
The aim of the present study was to compare first-service conception rates after inclusion of either hCG or GnRH in Double Ovsynch to anestrous dairy cows. The animals with follicle size ≥10 mm and no corpus luteum in ovaries were allotted into 2 groups. At the start of the programme, follicle sizes were 13.7±1.5 mm and 13.9±1.2 mm respectively (р=0.5). Higher percentage of ovulations (72.7%) were established in cows treated with hCG vs those treated with GnRH (64.4%, р<0.2094). Follicle sizes at the time of AI were 15.9±0.5 mm and 16.2±0.4 mm (р=0.5). Pregnancy was detected in 38.6% of cows treated with hCG and 42.2% of cows treated with GnRH (р<0.3501).
Key words: anestrus, dairy cows, double Ovsynch
SUBCLINICAL AND CLINICAL KETOSIS IN SHEEP – RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN BODY CONDITION SCORES AND BLOOD β-HYDROXYBUTYRATE AND NON-ESTERIFIED FATTY ACIDS CONCENTRATIONS
Vania Marutsova & Plamen Marutsov
Published online: November 26, 2017
The study included a total of 136 sheep from two breeds (Lacaune and Mouton Charollais) to establish changes in the values of body condition score (BCS), β-hydroxybutyrate (ВНВА) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in their blood and their relationship in the development of subclinical (SCK) and clinical (CK) ketosis. The ewes were divided in three groups (pregnant, recently lambed and lactating). Blood concentrations of ВНВА and NEFA were assayed in all ewes. The body condition was scored. Blood ВНВА concentrations were increased in Lacaune sheep from the three groups affected by SCK vs control levels, as well as in animals with CK from all groups vs both controls and SCK. None of Mouton Charollais ewes had blood BHBA concentrations >0.8 mmol/l. The evaluation of BCS of ewes with SCK and CK showed a trend of decrease compared to the control groups. The quantities of NEFA in sheep of the three groups with SCK were statistically significantly elevated vs control groups, while in sheep with CK – decreased, vs both controls and SCK. In meat-type Mouton Charollais ewes, values of NEFA ranged around the reference.
Key words: Ketosis, BCS, ВНВА, NEFA, ewes